Jane Loraine's Recipe Book (c.1684)


General Introduction

Content and Significance of Jane Loraine's Recipe Book

The manuscript contains 78 folios including the contents page, and these are numbered in pencil on the recto of each leaf. The page numbers begin on f.3r, and go from 1 to 91, appearing only on the recto of each folio.

There are a total of approximately 622 recipes listed in the manuscript, which are inconsistently numbered. There are recipes numbered from 1 to 63, another group from 1 to 59, another from 1 to 44, another from 1 to 57, and another from 1 to 110, with a total of 289 unnumbered recipes mixed in throughout (the majority appear towards the end, with the last 238 recipes being unnumbered). The total number of recipes is approximate as the divisions between each recipe are inconsistent. Some are both unnumbered and untitled, and therefore the starts and ends of various recipes are difficult to discern.

This inconsistency of numbering is evidently due to the fact that the recipe book was assembled from collections of pages rather than being progressively written as a book, and as such the recipes have already been numbered for their own smaller collections prior to assembly. The folios are collected in a different binding from their original 17th century binding, and the pagination in pencil has been added retroactively to fit this new binding.

This text begins with a contents page containing 37 entries, each with the relevant page number attached. This page was evidently created for organisational purposes by the individual responsible for compiling the recipes together initially, as the page numbers have been added to each page after the recipes were written, fitting into whatever gaps are available. A note reading this appears throughout the manuscript, and this refers to the entries that have been selected to appear on the contents page.

Though the contents appears to list single recipes, the entries actually refer to where groups of variations on a recipe can be found: for example, remedies for rickets, scurvy and worms appear in their own sections, and the contents page directs to these sections.

There are various categories of recipe in the manuscript, including culinary, cosmetic and medicinal as well as combinations thereof, making Jane Loraine's recipe book an example of what Sara Pennell in Early Modern Women's Manuscript Writing calls a typical mixture of culinary, medicinal and miscellaneous veterinary and household advices: essentially, a kind of multi-purpose domestic compendium.Sara Pennell, Perfecting Practice?: Women, Manuscript Recipes and Knowledge in Early Modern England in Early Modern Women's Manuscript Writing, ed. by Victoria E. Burke and Jonathan Gibson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), pp. 237-58 (p. 242).

The sections appearing in the contents are sometimes for different recipes which are connected by theme, for example a recipe to prevent miscaring [miscarrying] which precedes one that is good for conception. An apt explanation for this comes from what Pennell calls the pedagogic habits of the middling sorts; this inclination to expand in multiple recipes and over numerous pages upon the author's relative areas of expertise seems to reflect their desire to share and demonstrate knowledge.Pennell, p. 240.

Though the contents are mostly in page order, there are three anomalous entries at the end of the contents: two for page 54 and one for 9. It is probable that whoever wrote the contents page added these entries after deciding they were significant enough to warrant an entry, having already written the rest of the contents. Though it is possible that the pages themselves were added later, they are unlikely to have been inserted at these points in the collected book rather than placed at the end to follow the page and recipe numbering conventions.

Different standards for division appear throughout, likely due to the different preferences and styles of the manuscript's various contributors. Whilst some sections have straight, solid lines dividing each recipe, others have dotted lines, and some have no lines or even spaces between recipes at all. This creates an inconsistent styling to the manuscript whereby some pages appear sparse and neat, and others are densely loaded with text. There is also a massive variation in the length of the recipes included in this book: some are as short as one line, whereas one recipe on f.48v is almost two pages long from start to finish.

According to Michael Hunter, in the Renaissance [secretary] hands were challenged by a revival of italic, and by the seventeenth century secretary gradually died out, being replaced by either italic or by round or mixed hands, characterised by more rounded and looped letter forms.Michael Hunter, Editing Early Modern texts: An Introduction to Principles and Practice (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p. 15. This change can be seen in the manuscript as a mix of hands are present, including the looped hand to which Hunter refers, which appears on f.10v, as well as various other places. The italic hand is also prevalent, and appears to have been the hand of the main compiler as this is used for the contents page.

Though the manuscript pages are largely undecorated, using paratextual inscriptions such as swirls only to signify where some recipes end, there are some signs of aesthetic consideration evident in the ornate capitalisation used inconsistently throughout. Various recipes begin with large, elaborate capital letters, some even dipping down as far as three lines below the title.

Additionally, a recipe on f.31v has been deleted and restarted twice over (although no mistakes are visible) each time with a more elaborate first letter, the final attempt being written in a different hand. It is apparent that the presentation of this recipe was important to whoever wrote it (based on the name of the recipe, this is probably Mr Bates), so much so that they may have ultimately left someone else to write it out for them in a more favourable style, or otherwise chosen to deliberately change their own handwriting.

As Pennell suggests, manuscripts such as this were sometimes considered pages in which to hone one's handwriting.Pennell, p. 241. Evidently, graphology was a point of pride for the various contributors to this recipe book; the appearance of the manuscript as a result of this experimentation, however, was not, as the untidy, scribbled marks across the deleted recipes indicate.

The use of contractions occurs inconsistently throughout, with both ye and the appearing sometimes even within the same block of text, as is the case at the end of recipe 59 on f.10v. Hunter states that this is due to the ongoing change away from the archaic Anglo Saxon thorn (replaced by a y to mark the same sound), and claims that in the mid to late seventeenth century there is extreme variation as to how far they were used by different individuals.Hunter, p. 16.

What is interesting about this trend in the recipe book is that in many instances both forms appear to have been used interchangeably by the same authors. As Hunter said it was a period of shift from y to th, it is possible that individual writers were beginning to introduce this form into their writing slowly rather than all at once.

The change in handwriting is hard to determine precisely, as only Jane Loraine has a consistent tendency to sign her name on the pages. As such, our transcription ignores changes in hand, as this could signify a new writer, a change in ink or quill, or the passing of time, as well as any number of other factors. Handwriting styles vary frequently, but do not necessarily denote a new writer.

The various recipes included in the recipe book share several common ingredients, including milk and rosewater. These recurring ingredients tend to be ones which were readily available to people at this time, especially in an agricultural area where there would be abundant livestock, as milk and other dairy products are popular ingredients (more information on food in the period can be found in the Historical Context section of this introduction).

Additionally, these ingredients tend to appear in great quantities even within the recipes themselves: one recipe for Spanish cream requires three gallons of milk, which produces enough cream that it fills three earthen pans. Another requires 30 ayle pints of milk. These recipes evidently produce a large amount of food (in this case, specifically a large amount of cream), and as Pennell suggests the excess was likely intended to produce leftovers that found their way to the servant's table.Pennell, p. 248.

The wide varieties of cream present in this recipe book imply that Jane Loraine's household was wealthy. As Joan Thirsk notes, ordinary folk [could] rarely have indulged in separating [cream] from the milk, and so not only the large quantities of cream which appear in this recipe book but also the range of cream recipes themselves indicate wealth, and an abundance of spare time with which to experiment with this indulgence.Joan Thirsk, Food in Early Modern England (London: Continuum Books, 2007), p. 270.

Various recipes use vague measurements and quantities for their ingredients, such as a recipe which calls for tow or four whites [of eggs]. This is likely due to a necessary uncertainty in cooking that Pennell identified: she said practice was the only means through which the recipe text could be tried and move beyond being a mere prescription.Pennell, p. 250.

The recipes in this manuscript are, in most cases, far from a finished, refined set of instructions: they record the attempts of the author, which others may edit or update with their own experimentation. This is elsewhere evident in recipe titles such as Goosberry wine ye best, appearing on f.74v, which reflects the tendency to alter and improve upon existing recipes until they reflect the highest quality that can be achieved.

The Mystery of Jane Loraine

Thirteen signatures in the Jane Loraine recipe book can be attributed to Jane Lorraine herself, indicating her to be the owner of the manuscript. The figure of Jane Loraine has largely remained a mystery due, in most part, to the subordinate position of women in the seventeenth century and the lack of historical material detailing their lives.

There are two primary candidates in identifying Jane Loraine, both are members of the Loraine family of Kirkharle, Northumberland. The Loraine family were an upper class family, elevated by King Charles II to a baronet of England in 1664. The Pedigree and memoirs of the family of Loraine of Kirkharle (1902), by Lambton Loraine, details this elevation, attributing it to the sending of thirty foot soldiers to Ireland to protect the plantation of Ulster by Thomas Loraine.Lambton Loraine, Pedigree and memoirs of the family of Loraine of Kirkharle (London: J.B. Nichols and Sons, 1902), p. 96.

Thomas Loraine, born 1637, served as 1st Baronet during the composition of the recipe book. In 1657 he married his cousin, Grace Fenwick, at Hexham Abbey and in 1666 his eldest daughter was born, Jane Loraine.Loraine, p. 93.

Although there is a significant amount of historical material relating to Sir Thomas Loraine, 1st Baronet, very little is known about his daughter Jane. The 1st Baronet succeeded his own father, also Thomas Loraine, as head of the family at the age of twelve, following his father's premature death from a fever.Loraine, p. 82. At age twenty he married the fifteen-year-old Grace Fenwick; records indicate they had nineteen children in total, fourteen sons and five daughters. However, Lambton Loraine disputes this figure, noting that only seven children have been definitively traced.Loraine, p. 93.

Jane Lorraine is named in Thomas Loraine's will as his fourth issue after her brothers William, Thomas and Charles.Loraine, p. 102. Her birth date is given as 1666 suggesting that, if she is the author of the Jane Loraine recipe book, she was eighteen at the beginning of its composition in 1684. This corresponds to the round hand Jane Loraine employs within the text, as demonstrated on folio 33v. In Early Modern Women's Writing, Heather Wolfe notes that non-cursive semi-formal italic style of handwriting was the hand predominantly used by women in the first half of the seventeenth-century.Heather Wolfe, ed. by Laura Lunger Knoppers, Early Modern Women's Writing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 37. However, by the end of the century most men and women had adopted the round hand.Wolfe, p. 37. Thus, a round style of handwriting, as demonstrated by Jane Loraine, is generally associated with a person born mid-century or later.

Jane's mother, Grace, died at the age of sixty-two on the 2nd December 1706. Her father, Thomas, subsequently died on the 10th January 1717, aged eighty. His will details two further daughters, Mary and Katherine, although no subsequent information about them is known.Loraine, p. 101. William Lorraine succeeded his father to become 2nd Baronet in his sixty-first year.

Through her presence in her father's will, it can be deduced that Jane Loraine lived at least to the age of fifty-one, although whether she married or had any children is unknown. It is important to recognise that the dearth of historical material specifically relating to women of the period makes it difficult to attribute the text to any individual.

Lambton Loraine further details a Jane Lorraine, daughter of an Anthony Loraine of Walker or St. Anthony's. Anthony Loraine witnessed the marriage of Thomas Loraine and Grace Fenwick before his death in 1669. He named two daughters in his will: Jane and Grace.Loraine, p. 85. This Jane Loraine is additionally mentioned in the will of the 1st Baronet as his third cousin in 1717.Loraine, p. 103. Although no further information is given relating to this Jane Loraine, the reference to her in both wills indicates that she was living during the period of the text's composition and she must therefore be considered a candidate for the primary authorship.

At least thirty-one other individuals appear in the Jane Loraine recipe book. The most prominent name after Jane Loraine herself is Fenwick. On folio 36r the name Fenwick appears multiple times. This is unsurprising as it can be understood that these two prominent families of the Northumberland area were heavily intermarried. The 1st Baronet's wife, Grace Fenwick, lived during the text's creation.Grace's grandmother, furthermore, was a Grace Lorraine who had married Sir John Fenwick.Loraine, p. 93.

Many other prominent family names appear in the text such as Lady Gray of Chillingham and Horton and Mrs Dorithy Heron of Chipchase.William Gray, Chorographia, or A Survey of Newcastle upon Tyne (Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons, 1970), pp. 101-107. The extensive contact between different families is highlighted by the depiction of the Loraine family coach visiting Sir John Swinburne at Capheaton Hall, preserved in the Swinburne's family record.Loraine, p. 98.

Interestingly, the names of several doctors are attached to medicinal recipes within the text, such as Doctor Mathias on folio 71r. Mathias is a Huguenot name brought to England by refugees in the seventeenth century; it gained influence in predominantly Western areas of the country such as Wales and Lancashire.Patrick Hanks, Richard Coates and Peter McClure, The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland (Oxford University Press, 2016), http://www.oxfordreference.com [last accessed 2 June 2017]. This suggests informal networks of knowledge exchange between women and doctors in the period.

It is unclear to what extent the various different individuals mentioned actively contributed material to the text or whether their names have been attributed to recipes by Jane Loraine. However, the Jane Loraine recipe book can be understood as a social text, representing the communal nature of domestic knowledge in the early modern period. As a text, it offers a unique insight into the seventeenth-century household and the perspectives of the women that ran them.

Summary of the Critical Field

Sara Pennell and Michelle DiMeo have claimed that recipe books from the early modern period have only recently received mainstream attention from academic scholars, and most notably, have not traditionally been seen as important sources beyond particular disciplinary arenas.Sara Pennell and Michelle DiMeo, Introduction in Reading and Writing Recipe Books 1550-1800, ed. by Michelle DiMeo and Sara Pennell (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), pp. 1-22 (p. 3).

Developing research has begun to reflect the diversity of purpose and meaning that modern scholarship stands to gain from recovering and using these manuscripts as a source of academic study, exploring their cultural significance beyond solely food history. Recipe books act as starting points from which to delve into the domestic world of the early modern period; they can be understood as culinary texts, medical texts, historical objects, or even a type of life writing. Studying them forges a picture of the social and cultural lives of the domestic sphere and of those who inhabited it. In this sense, scholars can examine how the domestic branches out beyond their initial assumptions and unearth a diverse understanding of the early modern household.

Gynocentric networks

Recipe books are highly significant in regards to gender studies, documenting a field dominated by women and providing researchers with a representation of wide gynocentric networks. These manuscripts depict the domestic sphere as a place where women held authority, not just in the home, but also in the community.

Critics have explored the implications of the social communities the recipe books were shared within; although the recipe books did have male contributors (see Historical Context), they were largely dominated by women. Elaine Leong notes that the majority of these recipe books were created by family collectives, who worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries.Elaine Leong, Collecting knowledge for the family: recipes, gender and practical knowledge in the early modern English household, in Centaurus, 55, (2013) 81-103 (p. 87).

The multiple hands and signatures within the books create a sort of historical palimpsest, telling the story of the manuscript as it is shared and passed down through generations. Daughters would inherit these books from their mothers, which lead to the books becoming what Sara Pennell describes as a particularly female construction, and moreover, a highly-valued focus of inter-generational routes for female-to-female communication.Pennell, p. 245.

Often we see a different hand editing a pre-existing recipe, or writing proved as evidence that they have practiced and successfully produced this recipe.For examples of this practice within Jane Loraine's recipe book, see recipes 28 To make almond cream, 50 Another sort of cheese cakes, and 55 Lady Heron's whip posset. In these cases, this is written to demonstrate practice of the recipe, in lieu of proved. This situates the early modern domestic space as a site of knowledge production and of positive interaction between women. Pennell writes of the importance of the mobility of these manuscripts, noting that textual mobility is the key to the creation and survival of these manuscripts [...] exchange of domestic information was a crucial medium of female association, conversation and friendship.Pennell, p. 248.

In observing the relations mapped out within these manuscripts, researchers can gain an insight into the female relationships forged in the period, and the use of recipes as a source of communication. Recipe books were a female domain, with the medical recipes often concerned with female ailments. Catherine Field explores a selection of recipes with an undercurrent of potentially controversial instructions: for example, inducing an abortion in the case of an unwanted pregnancy. The example given by Field is a recipe with a warning that excess usage may cause the death of a foetus: take them soone away, or they will cause her to cast all in her belly.Mary Baumfylde, Medical and Cookery Recipes (Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1626), f.8r.

This is suggestive of a supportive female network prevalent within the period, as women would work to provide other women in different areas and different time periods with a means of control over their own bodies.

Empirical practices

Field also discusses the practice of proving a recipe, explaining how it allowed the individual to certify the receiptsThe word receipt is interchangeable with recipe (OED: receipt, n.14). in her collection using her body as a testing ground for efficacy […] such testing was informed by an empiricist model of knowledge and an emerging scientific method which underscored the importance of personal observation and experiment.Catherine Field, Many hands hands: Writing the Self in Early Modern Women's Recipe Books, in Genre and Women's Life Writing in Early Modern England, ed. by Michelle M. Dowd and Julie Eckerle (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 49-64 (p. 56).

This empirical form of practice reveals that women experimented in the kitchen in a similar manner to how early scientists were experimenting in laboratories, demonstrating a parallel development of empirical knowledge: they would practise the recipes and provide their own feedback and amendments, seen in the notes or edits within the manuscript. For example, the recipe To maike allmond milk within the manuscript is recommended to be used in order to treat the burning fever, and recipes for Plague Water are used to create a medicinal drink which would allegedly protect the drinker from the plague.

These kinds of medicinal recipes demonstrate that women were in fact essential to the development of early medicine, and so studying these manuscripts allows scholars to position them within the narrative of early modern medicinal development.

Authorial authority

Critical research also explores the ways in which recipe books such as these play with the complex notions of authorial authority.See the work of critics Margaret J. Ezell, Michelle DiMeo, Francisco Alonso-Almeida. Critics must consider how to reconstruct the identities of the authors of these books, and how they can understand authorship in new ways.

Pennell and DiMeo note that the 'author' is an elusive quarry in many early modern texts, citing reasons as diverse as legal framework […] moral anxieties around the public persona of the author (particularly the female author) and the difficulties of assigning modern notions of authorship to certain text formats.Pennell and DiMeo, p. 4.

This is further complicated due to the nature of recipe books as a collaborative work, with multiple contributors who would often leave their entries unsigned. It is necessary to explore how to gain a greater understanding of the identity of the authors, and consequentially, of the early modern woman, when the authors within these texts are multiple and often not explicitly distinguished.

Is it possible to find an individual identity within a collective written identity? Field suggests that although The genre reflects a self that defies easy boundaries or definitions of singleness, [it] still projects an insistent emphasis on the identity of the individual through concern with practice and personal experience of recipes.Field, p. 56. Despite the complexity of multiple authors, the focus within the content on practicing and amending recipes allows critics to understand the individual within the collective.

The books challenge ideas of singularity not only in authorship, but in genre. Recipes would change fluidly between medical, culinary, and cosmetic, sometimes even belonging to two categories at once. This dispels normative concepts of these genres, encouraging a hybrid understanding of medicine and culinary recipes. Field writes that this flexibility fostered a correspondingly fluid self, constructed as positive, authoritative and capable of healing and being healed through the writing, practice, proving and exchange of medicinal and culinary receipts.Field, p. 59.

These recipe books reflect positive interpretations of the self and the body. Field explains how for the early modern period, writing about the self was generally understood as an attempt to govern the unruly, shameful body. For women in particular, writing the self was a complex process; women were faced with the task of writing about themselves whilst retaining the modest, submissive qualities expected from a woman of the period, which has in part resulted in the lack of female representation in manuscripts.

By turning to recipe books, women could draw on their domestic authority in order to justify their writing. Recipe books can therefore be understood as a textual space that enabled women's positive expressions of the self: their bodies were presented as healable, and capable of healing, instead of a site of shame.

Through analysis of these manuscripts, scholars can relocate and make visible the early modern female experience. Susan Leonardi makes an interesting association between the literal act of making and reproduction of recipes, and women's reproductive capacity.Susan Leonardi, Recipes for Reading: Summer Pasta, Lobster à la Riseholme, and Key Lime Pie in PMLA, 104.3 (1989), pp. 340-347 (p. 344). The female space of the recipe books allow a further representation of the reroductivity of these women, not solely through the act of bearing children, but through making, mending, and creating in all aspects of the household and community. Studying these recipe books therefore provides the opportunity to analyse and frame the female body as productive and reproductive in various ways.

Contemporary and practical research

The appeal in research on these recipe manuscripts goes beyond the methodological or archaeological approach; they provide access to other more practical disciplines, such as food technology.

There are a growing group of online sites which engage with the practicalities of making the recipes, having transcribed and modernised them for today's kitchens.See for example Cooking in the Archives and The Historical Cooking Project. Note that the recipes being practiced are only culinary. Annie Gray states that it is only through studying [recipe books] in a variety of interdisciplinary ways that their full potential can begin to be realised.Annie Gray, A Practical Art: An Archaeological Perspective on the Use of Recipe Books, in Reading and Writing Recipe Books, 1500-1800, ed. by Michelle DiMeo and Sara Pennell (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2013 ), pp. 47-67 (p. 61).

Practical approaches to recipe book research allows analysis that reaches beyond purely the historical content of the recipe books, encouraging people to embrace a more tactile and material approach to the practicalities, and even taste, of the recipes contained within. Alyssa Connell and Marissa Nicosia, from the website project Cooking in the Archives, write that through engaging with the recipe book manuscripts in this way, the archives become much closer to our daily lives and the lives of our readers.Alyssa Connell and Marissa Nicosia, Cooking in the Archives: Bringing Early Modern Manuscript Recipes into a Twenty-First-Century Kitchen, Archive Journal (July 2015).

Newcastle University's library education officer Sara Bird organised an event in which pupils from Bedlingtonshire Community High School visited the university to create recipes from Jane Loraine's recipe books, working on the recipe for caraway cakes. Bird spoke of the importance of engaging with the public and allowing them access to the historical documents held in the archives: the students get to learn with academics who transport them back in time by creating a history trail […] The pupils really enjoy themselves and we get to share our expertise with them and show them that University is a fun and exciting place to be.It's Time for Tea: Civil War Style, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, March 2017.

This type of hands-on research is a practical way to draw attention to the forgotten women of the early modern era, and could easily inspire people into doing further critical research on the recipes of these often overlooked texts and women. Events such as these provide universities with the opportunity to interact with the local community, feeding these recipe books back into the community networks from which they originated, in a manner that harnesses the collective and collaborative mentality that is reflected in works of this nature.

By transcribing this text, we are able to make it accessible to all, and as such, allow it to enter the current critical field of research. Digitising and making these recipes available to the public allows us as editors to add to the dialogue surrounding the early modern recipes, removing barriers of inaccessibility in order to improve research in a range of disciplines.

Pennell and DiMeo write that the 'intertextuality' of recipes makes them prime sites for conversing with the past, distant presents, and, in their mobility, even the future. Recipes provided the focus for vicarious and actual interaction with not only other people, but other times, places and cultures, and the compilation of a manuscript, or the reading of a cookery book, could take its makers far from the kitchen hearth – aesthetically […] geographically, socially and intellectually.Pennell and DiMeo, p. 13.

In sharing this manuscript, we are able to create a collaboration across temporal and spatial barriers, in a manner reflective of genre from its initial early modern development.

Historical Context of Women's Position in the Household and How People Cooked During the Period

During the seventeenth century the kitchen was a domestic space which provided opportunities for women beyond cooking and household tasks. The kitchen and, by association, recipe books, provided women with social networks and were sources of food trends, learning and scientific exploration. Recipe books can be seen as a clear source of female authority, with a historical value that goes beyond the recipes themselves.

The Jane Loraine manuscript serves as a prime example of this type of complex source, informing the reader of what food was available in early modern North East England, the historical context of women's position in the household and how people cooked during the period.

Aspirational and accessible recipes

Recipe books are useful sources for determining the types of food available in England at this point in history. However, critics must be cautious as some of the recipes featured in these books may have been aspirational, with some ingredients, such as imported spices, being relatively expensive.Thirsk, p. 315.

Recipe books could therefore be utilised by the populace as a potential vehicle of social mobility, offering the possibility to the hopeful cook that s/he might learn from them how to concoct and present quality food.Thirsk, p. 315. Despite the potential for aspirational recipes, more accessible recipes were also featured. There were also books devoted to cheap ways of feeding family and servants.Gilly Lehmann, Reading recipe books and culinary history: opening a new field, in Reading and Writing Recipe Books 1550-1800, ed. by Michelle DiMeo and Sara Pennell (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), pp. 93-113 (p. 98).

Essentially, recipe books covered a range of culinary styles from haute cuisine to modest domestic.Lehmann, p. 98. The manuscript could be seen to apply to both aspirational and accessible recipes; recipes for desserts such as chocolate cream sitting alongside recipes for pap, a porridge like dish.

Food available in North East England

The Jane Loraine recipe book highlights regional food availability in the North East of England during the seventeenth century. Given the North East's shipping connections, records demonstrate that a lot of foreign imports were available at this time such as apples from France, oranges from Spain, almonds from Malaga and Barbary and West Indian spices via Antwerp and Amsterdam.Thirsk, pp. 30-31. There were also particular ingredients that were grown specifically in the North East such as Oats (that withstood both cold and rain) [...] to be used in pottages, porridges, and thick soups, which might account for the various recipes for foods such as pap in the recipe book.Colin Spencer, The Cambridge World History of Food, ed. by Kenneth F. Kiple (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 1220.

Despite the potential for aspirational recipes, the quantities of the ingredients used in the manuscript can be used to infer a degree of availability. For example, the vast quantities of milk needed for some of these recipes reflects the amount of dairy available in the North East of England at this time.See recipe 29 To make Spanish cream (f.6v). Many provided for their own needs at home by possessing a household cow, with a cow being the commonest possession of country people in terms of livestock.Thirsk, p. 270.

The manuscript essentially informs the reader of the historical food trends in North East England, from the quantity of dairy reflecting the more unctuous textures added to the aromas of the period, to the use of rosewater, musk and ambergris demonstrating the short-lived fashion for perfumed food that occurred during this period.Lehmann, p. 101.

Recipe books and literacy

The ideological role of the compleat housewife emerged as a national exemplar towards the end of the seventeenth century, which meant that the housewife was regarded as an expert in both the running the household and culinary endeavours.Pennell, p. 239.

The culinary skills required for this complete housewife role were often not hereditary skills, or skills that were passed down through the generations. This was partially due to the ever-diversifying tastes of the period, but also due to the universal desire for domestic expertise, upper-class women embracing cookery and domestic tasks, rather than limiting this expertise to domestic servants.Pennell, p. 239. It is because of this new desire for universal culinary skills that recipe books came into common practice, as there was a new need for documentation.

It is for this reason that literacy became exceptionally important. Beyond the desire for improved culinary skills, society became more print-oriented. The increased distribution of weeklies, broadsides, periodicals and magazines created economic and social changes that subsequently altered existing communication structures.Janet Theophano, Eat My Words: Reading Women's Lives through the Cookbooks They Wrote (Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 166. Therefore, literacy became a point of access to these economic and social changes, not just a method of attaining the ideal of the complete housewife.

In the domestic context through recipe books, women could engage in literate activities without censure, providing them with opportunities to learn and engage with literacy, granting them an opportunity to become better educated.Theophano, p. 167. Literacy became a means to indicate power, a way to signal standing and class, regard and authority, recipe books granting women these opportunities and the opportunity to engage intellectually in the wider public sphere.Theophano, p. 170.

Social networks

Recipe books can be regarded as a form of communication that was not influenced by class. Women were expected to teach children and servants to read during this period, providing opportunities for all women within the household regardless of class distinctions.Theophano, p. 165.

In order to gain the skills required to become the complete housewife, recipes and techniques were often passed between class boundaries. This very action goes against the contemporary and historical image that domestic servants were culinarily inexperienced and ignorant, whilst the upper classes were not involved within their kitchen or household.Pennell, p. 243.

Although it is difficult to ascertain the class of the contributors to the manuscript, what can be determined is that these recipe books became multi-authored collaborative works with recipes often attributed to other people, such as Lady Herron or Mrs Charleton in the manuscript. The recipe book therefore became an object of shared knowledge, but also a method of communication, providing opportunities for reading, writing and socialising across class lines.

However, these recipe books did not necessarily produce exclusively gynocentric networks. Rather than rigid gendered intellectual spheres, men and women's spheres of activity are not as exclusive of one another as popular ideology suggests.Theophano, p. 171. In the manuscript itself there are several male contributors such as Dr Mirons, Dr Burges and Mr Sands, despite the majority of the book being written by women. Therefore, whilst it is clear that recipe books offered far greater opportunities for women that would have otherwise been denied, and that they dominated the domestic space, these recipe books were also a method of socialisation for both genders.

Recipe books provided opportunities for universal communication that was not limited by class or gender, creating a unique space of equality. Whilst this does not necessarily guarantee equality for an individual or group beyond these books, the recipe book can certainly be seen as a vehicle that may engender social change, demonstrating the social power, influence and significance that recipe books and literacy granted women.Theophano, p. 166.

How people cooked in the period

Beyond the value of literacy, recipe books offered a form of scientific exploration, placing women in an authoritative position that goes beyond that of the domestic cook. This is evident in how people cooked during this period, recipes taking on a scientific approach firmly rooted in the process of trial and error, such testing was informed by an emerging empiricist model of knowledge and an emerging scientific method […], which underscored the importance of personal observation and experiment to attain accurate information about natural phenomena.Field, p. 56.

Cooking was an intellectual field, a form of empirical knowledge. In the manuscript there are various instances of recipes that have been tried and tested. There are multiple versions of certain recipes, often grouped together, with many being called Another of the same demonstrating the experimental process.

Some have been annotated in the manuscript with this, potentially demonstrating the preferences of the cook, although this may have been solely for forming the contents page of the book. However, it is still likely that significant or well used recipes were the ones that made it into the contents page, demonstrating this experimentation. This trial process may have occurred for various reasons, such as personal taste and preference, but also simply a case of seeing what worked and what did not.

Medicinal and cosmetic recipes

Aside from culinary recipes, cosmetic and medicinal recipes were also featured in these recipe books, demonstrating the multifaceted use of the recipe book as a source. In the manuscript we are given recipes to take away hare it Shall never grow and Make teeth white, demonstrating the cosmetic concerns alongside the medicinal and culinary.

Beyond these superficial treatments, food and medicine were seen as a related activity during this period. Culinary and medicinal recipes often occur together, with there being no firm distinction between the preparation of food and medicinal remedies. All ingestible substances were thought to be endowed with humoral properties that could have a beneficial or a negative effect on the body.Field, p. 52.

This overlap between culinary and medicinal allowed women to construct themselves as expert on anything having to do with the body under their care, a far more intensive intellectual task than merely experimenting with recipes.Field, p. 54. For example, in the manuscript, recipe 37 To maike allmond milk, is also used to treat one that hath the burning feavour, demonstrating an additional side to the domestic space.

Mass cooking

Recipe books also placed women in a position of authority outside of the family and into the public sphere, as mass cooking was commonplace during this period. This is due to the fact that alongside managing the household and its servants (if they possessed any), the housewives were expected to feed the household as well.Rosemary O'Day, Women's Agency in Early Modern Britain and the American Colonies (London: Routledge, 2014), p. 211.

This may account for some of the vast quantities needed for recipes in the Jane Loraine book, such as three gallons of milk in recipe 29 To make Spanish cream. The gargantuan size of these dishes possibly reflects the origin of a recipe in a household (or published cookery book) where meals were designed to produce leftovers that found their way to the servants' table.Pennell, p. 248.

For many, if not all elite married women, this role in many respects was extended to the wider community. They were often expected to entertain in large numbers, with the wives ministering the ordinary medical needs of the whole 'community' dependent on the estate.O'Day, p. 220.

These recipes were made to feed households and local communities, something which as a result extended the authority of women from the private to the public sphere. Their role became one far more essential and necessary than the purely domestic cook. Not only are they in charge of feeding the household, but of keeping the household and community healthy and thriving.

Textual Introduction

The Manuscript

Physical description

The manuscript material is paper. The page size is 8 1⁄2 × 13 1⁄2 inches (216 × 343 mm) Foolscap folio. Recipes are written in more than one hand in single columns throughout using almost the entire width of the page. The margin on the left is ¾", 15mm. There is no margin on the outer edge of the leaf.

Many of the leaves have been damaged and have been trimmed and glued by the binder. The ink is black/brown and no other colours are evident. The page numbering, added later, shows missing pages. There are blank leaves in 5 places: 11rv, 21rv, 30-31rv, 40-41rv (modern numbering). The recipes throughout the manuscript fall into three categories: medicinal, culinary and cosmetic. The blank leaves are within the culinary section and the medicinal section.


The binding is not original. The MS contains a binders apologia from Anthony Gardner OBE (1958) explaining that the front cover was missing and the spine decayed. The leaves were trimmed and sections resewn. The original sewing was on 5 cords, flexible.


A number of pages contain a single watermark categorised as a seven point Foolscap which appears in the centre of the leaf. The Initials AJ are in cursive below it. It appears on 39 of the 79 leaves of the manuscript, and occurs an almost equal number of times upright and upside down. The watermark is of medium size relative to the other watermarks in the Heawood catalogue. There are no other watermarks.

Watermarks can be identified using catalogues compiled by Edward Heawood (Watermarks: mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries) and W. A. Churchill (Watermarks in Paper). Additional detail can be found in Edward Heawood's Historical Review of Watermarks (Amsterdam, Swets and Zeitlinger, 1950). Heawood states that The marks most used on paper exported [included] the Foolscap with seven points.Edward Heawood, Watermarks: mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries (Hilversum, Holland: Paper Publications Society, 1950), p. 35.

Heawood's catalogue contains an explanation of the initials AJ: towards the end of the 17th century makers or merchants often placed their initials in such characters [cursive] either below the mark proper, or on its countermark. The Dutch factor at Angoulême, Abraham Janssen, had his initials put below the shield bearing either the Fleur-de-Lis or some other hackneyed mark.Heawood, p. 35.


Heawood explains that the[re was a] considerable supply [of paper] to Great Britain from [...] France [...] in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.Heawood, p. 24. Although mills were at work in both England and Scotland in the late 17th century there is no definite proof that their products came into general use before about 1700.Heawood, p. 26. Heawood states that certain regions of France formed an important source of supply to the Dutch, and to a less extent also to the English market, many of the mills in Angoumios being run by Dutch capital.Heawood, p. 24. Angoulême is the former capital of the Angoumois province of France.Angoulême, Encyclopedia Britannica online.

Research from Stirk and Isaac on the existence and output of English paper mills in the north east of England during this period supports Heawood's assertions. Isaac states that inconclusive evidence suggests that there might have been a paper mill in Newcastle upon Tyne from the 1760s or even earlier. Except for this Fourstones is the earliest mill in Northumberland, although there were several earlier in County Durham.Peter C. G. Isaac, Fourstones Paper Mill: the documents speak, (s.l.: s.d. 1985), p. 54. Fourstones was established in 1763.History of Fourstones, Fourstones Papermill website. At least two mills seem to have been in operation south of the Tyne around the end of the 17th C..Isaac, p. 53. In Stirk's The Lost Mills, the first recorded example of a paper mill in County Durham is from the 1670s, with six listed for the county as a whole: Croxdale, Lintzford, Chopwell, Egglestone Abbey, Blackhall and Gibside.Jean Stirk, The Lost Mills: a history of papermaking in County Durham (Sunderland: University of Sunderland Press, 2006).

There are two main reasons to doubt that the paper for the Jane Lorraine MS was produced by these mills. The dates of operation which are frequently after the dates in the MS, for example, 1695, 1697, 1717, 1719 and 1728, and the type of paper produced. In the case where the date corresponds with the MS, the type of paper may rule out the mill. Croxdale Mill, although operating in 1682, was not producing a suitable type of paper. The paper produced was mainly brown and whitey brown, relying on a cheap supply of rope from Sunderland port to use as the raw material.Stirk, p. 19. This is unlikely to have been of sufficient quality to be used for writing. Therefore, Jane Loriane's book is made up of paper sent into England via Janssen and such paper was used because of the poor quality and/or lack of paper production in England.


There are six different handwritings identifiable in the whole text. The italic hand and secretary hand appear in this section of the manuscript and the secretary hand can be associated with Jane Loraine, through the 13 signatures given.


The manuscript was written in England in the 17th century, 1684-6.


We have found 31 individuals throughout the manuscript by signature or because one or several recipes were attributed to them. Jane Loraine appears on several folios, including f.77. The other individuals are: Lady Attens (f.53), Lady Gray (f.36), Lady Heron (f.68), Lady Mary (f.46), Lady Morpeth (f.44), Lady Radcliffe (f.43), Lady Westmorland (f.65), Lady Winter (f.53), Dr Bourges (f.60), Dr Bowels (f.59), Dr Mathias (f.71), Dr Mirons (f.61), Dr Rumjye (f.64), Dr Sleuens (f.67), Mrs Boynton (f.46), Miss Charleton (f.25), Mrs Delavals (f.60), Mrs Dimotks (f.43), Mrs Doframby (f.66), Mrs Fenwick (several folios including f.36), Mrs Dorothy Heron (f.44), Mrs Heslops (f.54), Mrs Huits (f.46), Mrs Osborne (f.42), Mrs Ridal (f.69), Mr Sands (f.53), Mrs Sherriff (f.73), Mrs Sheules (f.53), Mrs Winsops (f.66), Mrs Withans (f.60).

There are 8 titled women and 6 doctors, which indicates that Jane Loraine's network included several titled families and members of the medical profession. This supports Leong's findings that recipe books of this period are often collaborative projects.Leong, p. 81.


There is no information available on the provenance of this manuscript.


The edition

The aim of this edition is to present the Jane Loraine receipt book, circa 1684-1686, as an accessible digital scholarly resource that preserves a piece of local North East England history.

This edition has been created using a sociological editing approach. As D.F McKenzie emphasises: the book is never simply a remarkable object. Like every other technology it is invariably the product of human agency in complex and highly volatile contexts which a responsible scholarship must seek to discover if we are to understand better the creation and communication of meaning as the defining characteristics of human societies.D.F. McKenzie, Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1999), p. 4.

Our edition explores this receipt manuscript as a socially created piece. The human agency discussed by McKenzie reaches beyond the idea of authorship to a focus on the text within a societal context, and this is how our edition has been approached. As it has no single concrete authorship, the contextual information provided on the text discusses how it is a work of social collaboration.

The themes of genre and gender both in relation to what this receipt book can tell of those themes and how they are relevant to the context of this text, have been explored within the contextual background.

Textual decisions

The source text is a manuscript existing in a single folio. It is a collaboratively produced fair copy of successive sets of culinary, medicinal and cosmetic receipts.

Transcription and mark-up

The transcriptions within this edition have been single keyed, and each of the editors has taken two leaves from the manuscript to transcribe.

Two versions of transcriptions have been created from the manuscript: one semi-diplomatic version and one modernised version. Each recipe has been given a descriptor of at least one of culinary, medicinal and cosmetic to allow for the reader to search the recipes using these key terms when a search function is later introduced.

Semi-diplomatic: The only editorial intervention within the semi-diplomatic version is the expansion of the abbreviations which is a common editorial practice for early modern manuscripts. This editorial decision was made to make the semi-diplomatic version to be of use to an academic or specialist audience; it may be relevant to researchers, teachers or students in the areas of food history, language history, literature and early modern history.

Modernised: Abbreviations and contractions are expanded. Words have been regularised to their modern equivalent within the modernised version. Archaic measurements have not been modernised, and instead have been defined within the glossary. The grammar of the original version has been maintained. This version is appropriate for an audience who do not specialise in the early modern period. By regularising words, we have made the modernised transcripts more easily comprehensible for readers without experience of manuscripts, or knowledge of the early modern period.

For a full description of the transcription rationale see the Guide to Transcription Conventions section.

Decoration and marginalia: The decoration within the source manuscript serves a purely functional role of separating recipes. We have maintained the separation of the recipes without the decoration as the digital images provide this for the reader. Where there is verbal marginalia it has been rendered; non-verbal marginalia can be found more clearly in the images than could be rendered through coding.


A left-hand side navigation menu has been used to allow readers ease of access to specific recipes, and which replicates a modern day recipe book in which users can go directly to a chosen recipe.

Four headers have been chosen to denote areas of the edition: Manuscript, Introduction, Commentary and Project. These terms have been chosen to clearly signpost the information available within this scholarly edition without overloading the interface with menus.

We have chosen complementary colours for font, background and menus to enable the edition to be read easily by a wide audience. We have chosen contrasting colours for text and background to make the content clearer for dyslexic readers.

The option to toggle between each transcript alongside the manuscript image has been included to enable readers to easily access the version of the text they require whilst exploiting the digital format by presenting the image always.

Annotations are presented in a hover box next to the term within the transcript. Readers have the choice to view or not view these annotations by clicking on the note icon. We made the decision to use hover boxes as it provides the annotated information alongside the text clearly, rather than using a footnote, and is a feature that is unique to a digital format.


Digital images of the manuscript folios 1-30 are available in this edition. The images of the folios that have so far been transcribed, 1r-11r, have corresponding semi-diplomatic and modernised transcriptions. Images are a key part of digital editions and it is best practice to include them; as Patrick Sahle discusses, digital editions usually start with visual representations, are indeed expected to provide this evidence.Patrick Sahle, What is a Digital Scholarly Edition?, in Digital Scholarly Editions: Theory and Practice, ed. by Elena Pierazzo and Matthew James (Open Book: 2016), pp. 19-40 (p. 27).

The use of digital images allows for the greater accessibility of the text via the digital medium and enables greater rigour through free comparison of transcriptions to manuscript images. As the source text is a manuscript, issues around handwriting must be negotiated: factors like the sharpness of the nib, the quality of the ink and the space available are taken into account, and this is an area where it is advisable to tread with caution.Michael Hunter, in Editing Early Modern Texts: An Introduction to Principles and Practice (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p. 16.

We have made the editorial decision to not attempt to replicate handwriting styles or changes in hand within the transcriptions, as the accompanying images present the handwriting issues more appropriately than could be rendered within the transcripts.


Annotations to the transcriptions are a key facet of a scholarly edition. We have chosen to include annotations to terms that are unusual or require clarity and appear infrequently within the manuscript. These terms are measurements that are not familiar to a modern audience, ingredient names that have changed over time or are unexpected items within a recipe, and some words or phrases that require clarity or context for comprehension.

We have also created a glossary of terms. Our rationale for words/phrases to enter the glossary is that they appear three or more times across the recipes that have, so far, been transcribed. This allows for the most commonly used unusual or unexpected terms to be defined and provided in an easily accessible list.

The commentary provided by the editors in the General Introduction gives contextual background to the manuscript from the period of its creation in the 17th century.

For a detailed discussion of the annotations we have included and the reasons why, go to the Rationale for Annotation section.

This edition so far

A digital edition cannot be given in print without significant loss of content and functionality.Sahle, p. 27.

This is the first phase of our edition and, with its current features, it could be given in print with minimal losses. As we have had limited time to create this edition, creating a resource that is accurately transcribed, accessible and scholarly has taken precedent over website features.

We have created a solid basis for a digital edition, and more features could be added to move the resource closer to Sahle's above definition. The inclusion of a crowdsourcing feature, hyperlinks to external websites and greater reader controls with layout and imaging are all elements that are unique to a digital format that could be incorporated in later stages of development.

The source text for this edition has featured in a Newcastle University community scheme, baking the recipes with pupils from local schools.

Guide to Transcription Conventions

This edition includes two transcriptions: one semi-diplomatic version and one modernised version. Both transcriptions reproduce the original document in content. The reason for including two transcriptions is to give the viewer the option to choose between a version that offers every letter of the manuscript in clear font, as opposed to 17th century handwriting, and a version that was designed to benefit the modern reading experience.

As a rule, both transcriptions follow the original text as closely as possible in order to retain original meaning. In both versions, grammar and punctuation remain the same as the original. The spelling of family names has been retained in both versions to acknowledge the value the manuscript places on the few names that are referenced in the text.

Line breaks, page breaks and the placement of the marginalia are retained so that the transcriptions are similar in appearance to the manuscript. Words that do not have a modern equivalent in the original text have been retained in both transcriptions and an explanatory note has been included.

Illegible or missing words that appear in the manuscript are, in both transcriptions, enclosed in square brackets with underscores to indicate the illegible or missing letters: e.g. [sc--ding]. Words that appear in the margin of the original are indicated in both versions by underlining.

In the semi-diplomatic version, spelling and capitalisation follows the original text. Deletions made by the compilers are indicated with a strikethrough. Corrections and additions, which appear in the manuscript, are indicated with a caret: e.g. ^with^. Blank spaces that appear in the original text are indicated, in the semi-diplomatic version, by square brackets: [ ].

The two transcriptions also differ slightly from the original text for ease of reading. In the semi-diplomatic version abbreviations are expanded, and the introduced letters are italicised to indicate the expanded word. In the modernised version, expanded abbreviations are silently incorporated into the text. Words damaged due to the condition of the manuscript, but where the meaning of the words can be still inferred, are enclosed in square brackets in both transcriptions. Words that are repeated in the original text are deleted in the modernised version, but are repeated as in the manuscript in the semi-diplomatic transcription.

In the original text, the letters u and v are interchangeable, as are i and j. In the semi-diplomatic version the letters are retained, whereas in the modernised version the letters are replaced with their modern equivalents.

In both transcriptions, the size of the headers differ from the original, being one font size larger than the font size of the recipe text. This is to ensure that readers can differentiate between recipes and recipe headers.

In addition, the modernised transcription has made more changes to the manuscript to be able to offer modern readers an improved reading experience of the original text. In the transcription, the spelling has been fully modernised. Additions and deletions are silently incorporated into the text. Place names have been replaced with their modern equivalents. Capitalisation has been modernised, which includes removing capital letters that appear mid-sentence in the manuscript. Personal names and place names have been capitalised where they have not in the original. The first letter of a title and the first letter of a recipe have also been capitalised in the modernised transcription.

Rationale for Annotation

Why annotate?

Our project aim in creating a digital edition of Jane Loraine's Recipe Book was to allow access of the manuscript to a broad and varied audience. We therefore have created a rationale of annotation in line with this aim.

We recognised that in providing any annotation there is the potential to exclude readers, for example those seeking an authentic experience of the manuscript, authentic in so far as it is experienced as it would have been at the time of creation. However we have attempted to utilise the features of the digital environment, to make the edition as inclusive as possible.

Here we can hide notes to include an audience wishing to have an authentic experience, but also provide notes to encourage those, for example, looking for information on cooking, ingredients, and the history of the North East in the 17th century.

We have provided contextual information in our General Introduction, including information about the history of the book, its contributors, and more broadly about recipe books, gender and class in the 17th century. In providing this introduction we have a responsibility to annotate accordingly.

Our rationale for annotation is to provide clarity and understanding to encourage a wide audience of readers from a variety of backgrounds and to ensure accessibility of the text. As to which words specifically to annotate, our rationale is to annotate those words which may be unfamiliar to the modern reader and so require clarification or explanation to allow an understanding of the text.

We also recognise that in providing a modernised transcription of the manuscript, where we have updated spelling and expanded abbreviations, we open our edition to a wider audience. To this audience we must provide clarification on terms unfamiliar to the modern reader and examples of where this is used similarly in a modern context or provide examples of the word in use in receipt books or in domestic use from the time period of Jane Loraine's book.

Again we aimed to keep notation short and for the purpose of clarity, without implying too much interpretation. We recognise that this is possible only to an extent when providing examples. As Claire Lamont emphasises one of the aims of annotation is to remove obscurity and in annotating we are attempting to give the modern reader the knowledge which could have been assumed among the text's original readers.Claire Lamont, Annotating a Text: Literary Theory and Electronic Hypertext, in Electronic Texts: Investgations in Method and Theory, ed. by Kathryn Sutherland (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1997), pp. 47-66 (p. 49).

Our initial intention was to provide neutral annotation, to provide definition for clarification. We felt that in order to allow as wide a reading as possible we had to avoid implying interpretation through annotation. However we recognised that, as Alice Eardley notes, in highlighting particular words for annotation we are already selecting words and suggesting that these require understanding.Alice Eardley, Hester Pulter's Indivisibles and the Challenges of Annotating Early Modern Women's Poetry, in SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 2012, 52:1, pp. 117-141, (p. 119).

By providing commentary as editors we are doing so from a particular societal perspective, as academics, in light of particular criticism and so annotation can never be free of interpretation completely. However, due to the nature of a receipt book, many terms being clarified are ingredients or cooking terms, and so there is no scope for interpretation, merely clarification.

Similarly we had considered the importance of allowing a free reading of the manuscript, one where a reader can experience the manuscript free from note or annotation. As Eardley suggests, annotation can [shut] down the text's potential for multiple readings.Eardley, p. 118.

We felt that to annotate could detract from the authorial intention and to provide opportunity to read the text online, as close to the original as possible, would allow a more authentic reading. This is where the digital edition allows us to work towards our aim to encourage a broad audience; notes do not appear within the text unless the reader clicks to open the note text box. Thus we avoid intrusive annotation, which allows the possibility of a free read.

How we will annotate

Annotations have been classified into three types: general notes, notes on ingredients, and glossary notes. Individual notes can be viewed at the relevant points in the text of the recipes, but all notes are also listed in the Editorial Notes section of the website.

Annotations are provided as short concise notes, with the intention of providing clarity and understanding to the modern reader. We should also provide textual information where relevant, for example on place names and people, in order to aid those seeking the edition in line with our intention, as set out in our General Introduction.

All notes will be given in the same format to provide continuity and clarity, with a definition where possible and then an example where necessary to aid understanding. Our aim was to use the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) for all definitions where possible, with examples largely from Early English Books Online (EEBO) and the Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME). These are cited within the notes with the relevant abbreviations as above and the appropriate citation reference. Where examples are taken from open access sources, citations are again provided within the note, allowing our audience the opportunity to seek further information where desired.

We want to ensure the significance and value of the manuscript is not lost and can be appreciated from a variety of research disciplines. Although many may use the manuscript as a historical document, for example to gain knowledge about ingredients, history or domestic life, others may wish to recreate recipes. By the very nature of the manuscript being a receipt book written in the 17th century, many terms used are colloquial and archaic.

If one is wishing to recreate recipes, terms require updating so modern ingredients or equivalents can be found. For recipes to be successfully followed cooking terms and instructions must be clear and so an example of usage in the note will allow a reader to see how the recipe would be followed elsewhere. We feel that to provide annotation and commentary in such a way, enabled via the digital edition, will ensure the significance of the receipt book is not lost.

What will be annotated?

We provide notes for those words unclear to the modern reader. Therefore archaic language, dialect and cooking terms, measurements and ingredients common in the 17th century but obscure to the modern reader will be annotated. However, again, extensive description is avoided. Verbal marginalia has been included in the transcription, as per the Guide to Transcription Conventions, though notes are not provided on these. As high quality images of the manuscript are provided it is unnecessary to annotate such details.

Example note

All notes will adhere to the following style:

rosewater | rose water | roase water

Definition: Water distilled from roses or scented with essence of roses, used as a perfume or flavouring, or in medicinal preparations, etc. (OED: rose water, n.1.a).

Comment: The term appears both as a single word and two separate words in the manuscript. The citations in the OED show that current usage also varies between one and two word spellings, so the transcripts will maintain the spelling style of the manuscript.

Example: Take Claret Wine, Rosewater, sliced Orenges, Sinamon and ginger, and lay it vpon Sops, and lay your Capon vpon it, A book of cookyre Very necessary for all such as delight therin, A.W (1591) (Source: EEBO).

A note like this, with an example of the usage of the ingredient, will give the reader a better understanding, for example about the type of recipes it would have been used in, how it might have been used, or its popularity in the time period.

Editorial Notes

General Notes


Occurrence: R.59.

Comment: The meaning of this word is unclear within the context of this recipe. See the note on natus.

birchen | biuten

Occurrence: R.22.

Comment: biuten, possibly a misspelling or alternate spelling of birchen. Peeled birchen rods were often used as whisks in order to beat the syllabub or posset to the correct consistancy. See the note on birch rod.

Example: Beat [...] in a bason with a Birchen rod till it come to froth, The Queens Delight; OR, The Art of Preserving, Conserving and Candying, W.M. (London: E. Tyler and R. Holt, 1671), p. 12.

birch rod | brich rod

Occurrence: R.39.

Comment: brich in the manuscript appears to be an alternate spelling or misspelling of birch. See the note on birch.

Example: take the curd of that posset, and put it into a bason, with the yolks and whites of six egges, seasoned with a little nutmeg, and so beat with a birch rod, untill you have beaten the posset curd and egges well together, Excellent and approved receipts and experiments in cookery, Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne (1658) (Source: EEBO).

cheesecakes | chease kakes | cheaskakes | cheaskes

Occurrence: R.49, R.50, R.51.

Definition: Formerly: a tart or pie containing a mixture originally including cheese, later usually curds or cream, eggs, sugar, butter, and various flavourings (OED: cheesecake, n.1).

Example: to bake, Cheesekakes and Custards in, The confession of the new married couple, A. Marsh (1683) (Source: EEBO).


Occurrence: R.14.

Definition: To agitate milk or cream in a churn so as to make butter; to produce butter thus (OED: churn, v.1.a).

coffins | cofens

Occurrence: R.50.

Definition: there are two potential relevant meanings for this word. (1) A mould of paste for a pie; the crust of a pie (OED: coffin, n.4.a). (2) A pie-dish or mould (OED: coffin, n.4.b).

Example: butter, and put it into the Coffin, and so let it bake, A book of cookrye Very necessary for all such as delight therin, gathered by A.W. (1591) (Source: EEBO).

curd loaf | curdelofe

Occurrence: R.48.

Definition: Loaf made from curd, yeast, eggs and flour; can be sweetened with sugar and ginger.

Example: To make a great Curd Loaf, The Compleat Cook, Expertly Prescribing The Most Ready Wayes, Whether Italian, Spanish or French, For Dressing Of Flesh and Fish, Ordering Of Sources Or Making Of Pastry, W.M. (1685) (Source: The Foods of England Project).

faggots | fagits

Occurrence: R.13.

Definition: A bundle of sticks, twigs, or small branches of trees bound together: a. for use as fuel (OED: faggot | fagot, n.1).

fool | foule

Occurrence: R.24.

Definition: A dish composed of fruit stewed, crushed, and mixed with milk, cream, or custard (OED: fool, n2.2).

Example: Foole is a kind of Custard, but more crudelly; being made of Cream, Yolks of Eggs, Cinamon, Mace boiled, The Academy of Armory, Randle Holme (Chester, 1688), p. 82.


Occurrence: R.7.

Definition: (1) A dish made of hulled wheat boiled in milk, and seasoned with cinnamon, sugar, etc. (OED: frumenty | furmety, n.1). (2) Samuel Johnson defines frumenty as food made by boiling wheat in milk, A Dictionary of the English Language (1755), p. 876 (Source: LEME).


Occurrence: Contents.

Definition: A kind of wide loose hose or breeches; trousers (OED: gaskin, n1.1).

Example: they should put him into a strait pair of Gaskins, 'twere worse than knot-grass, he would never grow after it, Fifty comedies and tragedies written by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Francis Beaumont (1679) (Source: EEBO).


Occurrence: Contents.

Definition: A kind of medicinal concoction, apparently used during and/or after pregnancy (thought not exclusively for this purpose).

Example: (1) About four or five dayes after the birth, you may use a gentle Glister of half a pound of Sallade oyle, with a quartern of Barly boyled in broth, with two ounces of Sugar, with the yolke of an Egg, beaten together, Queen Elizabeth's closset of physical secrets, A.M. (1656) (Source: EEBO). (2) The Cure is to be begun with opening a Vein, a Glyster (if need be) being first administred, The sick-mans rare jewel..., A. B. (1674) (Source: EEBO).

(a) grain | agraine

Occurrence: R.9.

Definition: A grain is a unit of measurement equivalent to approximately 0.0648 gram (OxfordDictionaries.com, grain, n.3).

Hedgehog cream | Hodge hogge cream

Occurrence: R.54.

Definition: Applied to other things likened to a hedgehog [...] f. A dish in cookery [...] 1723 J. Nott Cook's & Confectioner's Dict. sig. Q5, Almonds, ..Eggs, ..Cream, ..Butter ..stirring, till it is stiff enough to be made in the Form of a Hedge-hog; then stick it full of blanch'd Almonds, ..like the Bristles of a Hedge-hog (OED: hedgehog, n.4).

Heron family

Occurrence: R.55.

Comment: The Heron family were granted a Baronacy in Hadstone, Northumberland from the 12th-13th Century, Northumberland Families Vol. 1, W. Percy Hedley, (Gateshead, Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, Northumberland Press Ltd. 1968), p. 30.

holand apron

Occurrence: R.58.

Comment: The Holand apron comes from a style of traditional dress worn in the Netherlands which was first developed in the 16th and 17th centuries. (W. Bruhn and M. Tilke, A pictorial history of costume, New York: Arch Cape Press, 1988, p. 145.)

Jane Loraine

Occurrence: R.5.

Comment: Throughout the manuscript, Jane Loraine signs the bottom of various pages in this fashion. More information on Jane Loraine can be found in the Mystery of Jane Loraine section of the introduction.

mince | minch

Occurrence: R.15.

Definition: (1) To cut up or grind (food, esp. meat) into very small pieces (OED: mince, v.1.a). (2) To MINCH, MINSH, V. a. To cut into small pieces, An etymological dictionary of the Scottish language, John Jamieson (1879), p. n296.

muslin | musking

Occurrence: R.25.

Comment: musking, an alternate spelling of muslin, a type of lightweight cotton fabric (OED: n.1.a) through which the cream based mixtures could be strained, potentially to remove excess water.

Example: (1) Strain the custard through a tammy cloth, The Royal Cookery Book, Jules Gouffe (London: Sampson Low, 1869), p. 541. (2) It must be strained through a fine hair sieve of a muslin cloth, About Ices, Jellies and Creams, Henry G. Harris (Oxon: Routledge, 2010), p. 246.

pap | pape

Occurrence: R.30.

Definition: Semi-liquid food, such as that considered suitable for babies or invalids, usually made from bread, meal, etc., moistened with water or milk; bland soft or moist food (OED: pap, n2.1.a).


Occurrence: R.22.

Definition: A covering or outer layer of a fruit or vegetable; a skin, husk, rind, or shell; the bark of a tree, or a layer of bark; spec. (a piece of) the thin rind or peel of a fruit or a tuberous or bulbous root (OED: pill, n2.1).


Occurrence: R.45, R.46.

Definition: To make or punch holes; to stab (OED: pink, v1.2.a).

Example: pinke it, cake it, scrape on Sugar, and serve it, A choice manual of rare and select secrets in physic and chyrurgery collected and practised by the Right Honorable, the Countesse of Kent, late deceased; as also most exquisite ways of preserving, conserving, candying, published by W.I.Gent,1653 (Source: EEBO). This example is taken from a recipe to make Kidney Florentines, and so to pinke it refers to the process of making holes in the pastry either for decoration or to let the steam out whilst baking.


Occurrence: Contents.

Definition: An ointment for the skin or hair (OED: pomade, n.1).

Example: A Pomatum for Midwives to anoint their hands with when they are about their Office, as also the Womb of the Woman to be Delivered, Aristoteles Master-piece, Anon. (1684) (Source: EEBO).

pottle | potel

Occurrence: R.47, R.49.

Definition: (1) A pot, tankard, or similar container [...] one having the capacity of a pottle (OED: pottle, n1.1.a). (2) A unit of capacity used chiefly for liquids (but also for corn and other dry goods, and rarely for butter), equal to half a gallon (approx. 2.3 litres). (OED: pottle, n1.1.b).

pricked | prickt

Occurrence: R.4.

Comment: In modern cooking, pricking is a practice by which food is pierced to prevent expansion or explosion whilst heating. As prickt at this time did in fact refer to piercing, this can be assumed to refer to the same thing but for a different effect, possibly to enable the almonds to soak up the cream.

Example: Punto, prickt, pointed, stung, stitched, counterpointed, foyned, or thrust at, A World of Words, John Florio (1598) (LEME).


Occurrence: R.37.

Definition: (a) A crop or plant that has been raised (OED: raising, n2.3.a); (b) To cause or promote the growth of (a plant); to grow (fruit, vegetables, flowers, etc.). (OED: raise, v1.11.a).

Comment: In this context, raisings refers to cuttings of the sun strawberry leaves.

riseth | ryseth

Occurrence: R.19.

Definition: Of liquid, esp. molten metal: to bubble vigorously as a result of boiling or the release of gases (OED: rise, v.16.e).

Example: boyle it till it come to an oyle, which oyle as it riseth take off with a spoon, Queen Elizabeths closset of physical secrets, A. M. (1656) (Source: EEBO).

scum | scome

Occurrence: R.13.

Definition: To clear (the surface of a liquid) of impurities or floating matter (OED: scum, v.1.a).

searced | scearced

Occurrence: R.27, R.36.

Definition: (a) To sift through a searce (OED: searce, v.a); (b) A sieve or strainer (OED: searce, n.).

Example: Searce them thorow a course haire searce, A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen, Arthur Johnson (London: F. Kingston, 1602), p. 47.


Occurrence: R.1.

Comment: Though definitions from both this period and modern dictionaries (e.g. OED: seethe, v.1.a) suggest this is synonymous with boiling, this use of the term appears to be closer to simmering.

serve | sarve

Occurrence: R.14.

Definition: To minister to a person at table; hence, to supply, furnish, present with (a commodity) (OED: serve, v1.III).

Example: a sup of Milke shal sarve ye, Comedies and tragedies, Francis Beaumont (1647) (Source: EEBO).

Spanish cream

Occurrence: R.12, R.29.

Comment: Spanish cream is a type of white custard that separates as it cools to form a fluffy layer on top and a smooth glassy layer on the bottom. There is nothing Spanish about this dessert, and it often comes under other names such as Snow Cream. (Richard Sax, Classic Home Desserts: A Treasury of Heirloom and Contemporary Recipes, New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010, p. 105.)

Spanish pap | Spannish papp

Occurrence: R.36.

Comment: Lady Leicester's Spanish Pap was eaten like Flummery, indicating it was a type of moulded dessert of jelly like texture. (Richard Sax, Classic Home Desserts: A Treasury of Heirloom and Contemporary Recipes, New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010, p. 173.)

strain(er) | seime | seimed | seimer

Occurrence: R.14.

Definition: strainer, A utensil or device for straining, filtering, or sifting; a filter, sieve, screen, or the like (OED: strainer, n.1.a).

Example: Take your Eglantine Berries other|wise called Hips, and stampe them in a morter, with Gum-tragacant and Rose water, then strayne it tho|rough a strayner, A closet for ladies and gentlevvomen, Anon. (1608) (Source: EEBO).


Occurrence: R.2, R.5, R.19, R.28, R.50, R.55.

Comment: The word this is used to denote recipes which have been selected for inclusion in the contents page, and appears throughout.

whey | whay

Occurrence: R.26.

Comment: Although whey is an ingredient in its own right (the serum or watery part of milk which remains after the separation of the curd by coagulation, esp. in the manufacture of cheese, OED: whey, n.1.a), this usage most likely refers to the beverage or medicinal drink of wine whey or sack whey, a dairy-based drink similar to the syllabub or posset.

Example: (1) Drink plentifully of small, warm Sack-Whey, The Gentleman's Magazine (London: E.Cave, 1736). (2) To make Wine Whey. Put a Pint of skimmed Milk, and half a Pint of White Wine into a Bason, The Experienced English Housekeeper, Elizabeth Raffald (London: R. Baldwin, 1769).

wheyed | waged

Occurrence: R.48.

Definition: to separate the whey from (milk) [...] as wheying cloth. (OED: whey, v.)

Example: Take a quantity of the best curds you can make of stroakings and cream, after you have, wheyed them very well, Excellent and approved receipts and experiments in cookery, Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne (1658) (Source: EEBO).

work | woke

Occurrence: R.40.

Definition: To soften. (OED: woke, v.2.b).

Comment: Woke is an Old and Middle English term that the OED marks as obsolete. The semi-diplomatic version of the text uses the original form woke, but this is substituted in the modernised version with the modern recipe equivalent of work.

Notes on Ingredients


Occurrence: R.60.

Comment: No occurrences of this term from this period could be located anywhere other than this recipe book. Based on its location in the book and the nature of the recipe itself, this seems to be a cream-based dessert.

barley | berley | berly

Occurrence: R.7, R.47.

Comment: The form berley reflects a regional pronunciation of barley. A common ingredient of the period, barley further appears in multiple medicinal recipes.

Example: The Leavs bruised and applied with Barley Meal to watering Eyes that are hot and inflamed by defluxions from the Head, doth very much help them, as also the Fluxes of Blood or Humors, The English Physician, Nicholas Culpeper (1652), p. 56 (Source: LEME).

best milk

Occurrence: R.2.

Comment: Best milk refers to the physical quality of the milk in terms of its smell, taste, consistency, etc.

Example: the milk at the latter end of the Spring is best, by how much the thiner it be, and more Serous by so much it is the easier concocted, and sooner passeth through the belly, and obstructs least, but nourisheth less, to know the best milk, it is of a good smel, and sweet to the taste, of a middle consistence, ne[...]ther too thick, nor too thin, neither Serous nor Caseous, too much of a white colour which yields good Aliment, and that plentifully and constantly enough, Every man his own doctor in two parts, John Archer (1671) (Source: EEBO).


Occurrence: R.60.

Comment: No occurrences of this term from this period could be located anywhere other than in this recipe book, suggesting that this is possibly a colloquial or regional name. Given the context, it is likely that this refers to a solid substance forming in or on the top of milk.

borage bugloss | burig bugeles

Occurrence: R.47.

Definition: (a) borage, The common British species (Borago officinalis), which has bright blue flowers, and stem and leaves covered with prickly hairs; it was formerly much esteemed as a cordial, and is still largely used in making cool tankard, claret cup, etc. (OED: borage, n.); (b) bugloss, Any of several hairy herbaceous plants of the family Boraginaceae, typically with blue flowers, esp. those of the genera Anchusa (as the small annual A. arvensis of Europe) and Echium [...] 1542 A. Borde Compend. Regyment Helth, The rootes of Borage and Buglosse (OED: bugloss, n.).

cabbage | cabbish | cabish

Occurrence: R.13, R.14.

Definition: The compact round or conical head of thick, short-stemmed, typically green leaves, formed by numerous cultivated varieties of the plant Brassica oleracea (family Brassicaceae), commonly eaten as a vegetable; the plant producing such a head (OED: cabbage, n1.1.a).

Example: the great ordinary Cabbage knowne every where, and as commonly eaten all over this kingdome, The Herbal or General History of Plants, Thomas Johnson (1633), p. 42 (Source: LEME).

Canary sack

Occurrence: R.42.

Definition: a sweet fortified white wine produced in the Canary Islands. (OED: Canary, n1, 2. Canary sack).

Comment: See the note on sack.

caraway seeds | charraway seades

Occurrence: R.10, R.16.

Definition: An umbelliferous plant (Carum carui) its small fruits, commonly called caraway-seeds, are aromatic and carminative; they are used in cakes, sweetmeats, etc. (OED: caraway, n.1, caraway-seed, n.). Caraway Seeds are of European origin, (K. F. Kiple, The Cambridge World History of Food, Vol.1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 432).

codling | kodling

Occurrence: R.44.

Definition: A variety of apple, in shape elongated and rather tapering towards the eye, having several modern sub-varieties, as Kentish Codling, Keswick Codling, etc. (OED: codling | codlin, n2.1.a).

Example: After your Codlings be throughly cooled and yeelded, put them into a silver dish, and fill the dish almost half full with Rosewater, and half a pound of Sugar, boyl all this liquor together, untill half be consumed, and keep it stirring till it be ready, A choice manual of rare and select secrets in physick and chyrugery, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of Kent (1653) (Source: EEBO).

curd | crud

Occurrence: R.42.

Comment: The manuscript uses the form crud, an archaic form of curd. Middle English crud (also crod) is found first in 14th cent.; the form curd is known from 15th cent. (OED: curd, n., etymology).

double refined sugar | duble refined sugar

Occurrence: R.27, R.62.

Comment: A very popular ingredient in confection at this time, occurring in at least 53 texts recovered from the period (Source: EEBO). Refining refers to the industrial process by which sugar cane is transformed into white crystalline granules. Refined (i.e. white) sugar is often considered preferable for taste, and is typically the kind of sugar used in baking. As sugar cannot be refined beyond this purity, it is possible that double refined actually refers to the fineness of the granules rather than the industrial process itself; double refined sugar may have been something akin to icing sugar in the present day.


Occurrence: R.49.

Definition: A substance used for curdling milk; rennet, now rare, regional in later use (OED: earning, n2.1).

eryngo root | ringo route

Occurrence: R.15.

Definition: The candied root of the Sea Holly (Eryngium maritimum), formerly used as a sweetmeat, and regarded as an aphrodisiac (OED: eryngo, n.; 2. attrib., esp. eryngo-root).

Example: then lay in your Po|tatoes and Artichokes round the Dish with some Eringo roots and Dates sliced in halves, The compleat cook: or, the whole art of cookery, Anon. (1694) (Source: EEBO).

French barley | frensh barley | frensh barly

Occurrence: R.37, R.47.

Definition: Barley which has been ground to remove the husks (OED: French, adj., French barley, n.).

hartshorn | hartshorne

Occurrence: R.52.

Definition: (a) hart, The male of the deer, esp. of the red deer; a stag; spec. a male deer after its fifth year (OED: hart, n.a); (b) hartshorn, The horn or antler of a hart; the substance obtained by rasping, slicing, or calcining the horns of harts [...] 1747 H. Glasse Art of Cookery xvi. 146 (OED: hartshorn, n.1)

Example: Take what quantity you please of Harts|horn, the like of Izing-glass and Dates, the same of sliced Figs and Prunes, to half a pound of the aforesaid ingredients put a pound of Sugar, of Cinamon and Ginger each half an ounce, a quarter of mace,, The English and French Cook, Anon. (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1674), p. 271 (Source: EEBO).

isinglass | isinglasse

Occurrence: R.15.

Definition: A firm whitish semitransparent substance (being a comparatively pure form of gelatin) obtained from the sounds or air-bladders of some fresh-water fishes, esp. the sturgeon; used in cookery for making jellies, etc., also for clarifying liquors, in the manufacture of glue, and for other purposes (OED: isinglass, n.1).

Example: Take halfe a pound of small Almonds, beat them, and strayne them with Rose water, and sweet Milk from the Cow, and put into it two or three pieces of large Mace, one graine of Musk, two ounces of Isinglasse, A Book of fruits and flovvers, Anon. (1653) (Source: EEBO).

chocolate cream | jockalet cream

Occurrence: R.63.

Comment: jockalet, an alternative spelling of chocolate, likely based on the similar sounds of ch and j when said aloud. Other forms of this error can be found from this time, such as jacolat, jocalat, and jocklat. (On the various possible spellings, see OED: chocolate, n. and adj.)

loaf-sugar | lofe sugar

Occurrence: R.10.

Definition: Sugar refined and moulded into a loaf or conical mass (OED: loaf-sugar, n.).

manchet | mainshet | manchit | manshet

Occurrence: R.14, R.38, R.51.

Definition: Wheaten bread of the finest quality (OED: manchet, n.1.a).

Example: (1) take a little sugar, and Sinamon, and a few crums of manchet bread, A book of cookyre Very necessary for all such as delight therin, gathered by A.W. (1591) (Source: EEBO). (2) make sauce with some thin slices of Manchet of grated bread, The Court and kitchin of Elizabeth by Anon. (1664) (Source: EEBO).

Naples biscuits | napels biskake

Occurrence: R.16.

Definition: A kind of biscuit flavoured with rose water (OED: Naples, n.4, Naples biscuit, n.).

Example: Take a quart of new Cream, and a quarter of a pound of Naples-Biskets, grate them and put them in|to the Cream, The young cooks monitor, M.H. (1683) (Source: EEBO).


Occurrence: R.59.

Comment: The only definitions of this word refer to the Latin natus, pertaining to birth. The meaning in this context is unclear.

Example: The word is from the Lat. Nascor, to be born, or rather its participle, Natus sum, Mathematical Dictionary, James Moxon (1679) (Source: LEME)

orange-flower water | oring flowr water | oringe flowre water

Occurrence: R.13, R.15.

Definition: An aqueous solution of orange flowers; the fragrant watery distillate left over in the preparation of neroli oil and used for culinary purposes and in perfumery (OED: orange flower, n., orange-flower water, n.).


Occurrence: Contents, R.8.

Definition: The fruit of the tree Cydonia oblonga [...] a golden yellow, typically pear-shaped pome with many-seeded cells, which is hard-fleshed and astringent when raw but aromatic and deep orange in colour when cooked (OED: quince, n1.1.a).


Occurrence: R.38, R.48.

Definition: A levelled (as opposed to a heaped) measure (OED: rase, n.).

Example: Take of White Wine one pint, steep therein of the root of Caelidon, the weight of twelve pence, of Saffron one pennyworth, a rase of Turmarick, Queen Elizabeth's closset of physical secrets, A.W (1656) (Source: EEBO).

rennet | runet

Occurrence: R.51.

Definition: curdled milk from the abomasum (fourth stomach) of an unweaned calf or other ruminant, containing rennin and used in curdling milk for cheese, junket, etc. Also: a preparation of the inner membrane of the abomasum used similarly. (OED: rennet, n1.1.b).

Rhenish wine | renish wine

Occurrence: R.22.

Definition: Designating wine produced in the Rhine region (OED: Rhenish, adj.1).


Occurrence: R.41.

Comment: Likely a reference to the appearance and age of the apples used. Scald is a term loosely applied to a group of skin disorders of apples and pears. It involves brown or gray discoloration of irregularly shaped areas on the surface of the fruit during or following storage, Postharvest Diseases and Disorders of Apples and Pears, Willet and Kupferman et al., Post Harvest Pomology Newsletter, 7(3):4-5 (1989).

spice-cakes | spistakes

Occurrence: R.15.

Example: a mease of creame, a spice-cake, and a spoone, A pleasant comedy entituled: An humerous dayes myrth, George Chapman (1599) (Source: EEBO).

stalk | stalke

Occurrence: R.60.

Comment: This probably refers to the stalk of a herb, such as rosemary, though no herb is actually specified.

succory endive | suckery indive || endive and succory | endiue and succery

Occurrence: R.37, R.47.

Definition: (a) succory, The plant Cichorium Intybus [...] with bright blue flowers, found wild in England, esp. by roadside. Also, its leaves and roots used medicinally and as food (OED: succory, n.1); (b) endive, The name of two species of Chicory [...] a. C.Intybus, now called Wild Endive, Succory, or Chicory, indigenous in Europe, and common in a wild state in many parts of England. (OED: endive, n.a).

sweet-brier | sweet bryer

Occurrence: R.14.

Definition: A species of rose, the Eglantine, Rosa rubiginosa (and some other species, as R. micracantha), having strong hooked prickles, pink single flowers, and small aromatic leaves; frequently cultivated in gardens. (OED: sweet-brier | sweet-briar, n.).

Example: Take Rosemary, Time, Sweet-bryer, Egri|mony, Wood-Bettany, Eie-bright, Scabius, of each a like quantity; Roman wormwood of each of these a proportion, The true preserver and restorer of health, G. Hartman (1682) (Source: EEBO).

tiffany | tyffany

Occurrence: R.16.

Definition: A kind of thin transparent silk; also a transparent gauze muslin, cobweb lawn (OED: tiffany, n1.2.a).

Example: a grain of Musk and Ambergriese tyed in a Tiffany-bag, put in also some Rosewater, The compleat English and French cook, Anon. (1690) (Source: EEBO).

top | topp

Occurrence: R.26.

Definition: The cream that rises to the top of milk when left undisturbed (OED: top, n1., top of the milk n.).

Example: Make a mixture of tomato sauce and a little top of the milk cream, Come into the Garden, Cook, Constance Spry (London: J.M.Dent, 1942), p. 51).


ale pint | ayle pint | ayle pinte

Occurrence: R.8, R.9, R.15, R.16, R.60.

Comment: Preceding the introduction of Imperial Standard in 1824, units of measurement often differed depending on regional preference. Carl Ricketts associates an 18 fluid ounce pint with the Newcastle-upon-Tyne area (Marks and Marking of Weights and Measures of the British Isles, 1996, p. 96). An 18 fluid ounce pint is equivilent to 511.43535ml.

ambergris | amber greas | amber grease

Occurrence: R.34, R.60

Definition: A wax-like substance of marbled ashy colour, found floating in tropical seas, and as a morbid secretion in the intestines of the sperm-whale. It is odoriferous and used in perfumery; formerly in cookery (OED: ambergris, n.).

Comment: Formerly used in cookery, but more often in perfumery (Ken Albata, Cooking in Europe 1250-1650, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006, p. 4).


Occurrence: R.4.

Definition: A measure for liquids, containing one fourth of a standard pint (OED: gill, n3.1.a).

Comment: In modern recipes, teacup is generally used to refer to approximately this quantity of liquid.

mace | mase

Occurrence: R.8, R.9, R.16, R.35, R.37, R.38, R.41, R.43, R.45, R.46, R.56.

Definition: An aromatic spice consisting of the fleshy aril or covering surrounding the seed in the fruit of the nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans, dried and used (chiefly in powdered form) to flavour savoury dishes, sauces, etc. (the kernel of the seed being the source of nutmeg) (OED: mace, n1.1).

Comment: Additionally used in medicinal recipes.

Example: a Decoration of the Flowers in Wine with a little Nutmeg or Mace put therin, and drunk often in a day, &, is an approved Remedy to bring down Womens Courses speedily, and helpeth to expel the dead Birth and Afterbirth, The English Physician, Nicholas Culpeper, 1652, p. 50 (Source: LEME).


Occurrence: R.9, R.34, R.52, R.60.

Definition: A reddish brown substance with a strong, persistent odour secreted by a gland of the male musk deer (OED: musk, n.1.a).

Comment: Formerly used in cookery, but more often in perfumery (Ken Albata, Cooking in Europe 1250-1650, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006, p. 4).

posset | poset | posit

Occurrence: Contents, R.19, R.21, R.23, R.42, R.55.

Definition: A drink made from hot milk curdled with ale, wine, or other liquor, flavoured with sugar, herbs, spices, also drunk for medicinal purposes (OED: posset, n.1).

Comment: Similar to the syllabub, except the posset is served hot, while the syllabub is served cold.


Occurrence: R.1, R.4, R.5, R.10, R.11, R.14, R.18, R.19, R.22, R.29, R.30, R.38, R.43, R.45, R.46, R.49, R.50, R.52, R.54.

Definition: A measure of capacity for liquids (also sometimes used for grain or other dry substances consisting of small particles), equal to a quarter of a gallon or two pints (OED: quart, n1.1.b).

rosewater | rose water | roase water

Occurrence: R.1, R.4, R.5, R.9, R.11, R.12, R.13, R.14, R.16, R.17, R.25, R.27, R.28, R.29, R.32, R.33, R.34, R.35, R.36, R.38, R.41, R.42, R.43, R.45, R.46, R.49, R.51, R.52, R.54, R.55, R.56, R.57, R.58, R.59, R.60, R.62.

Definition: Water distilled from roses or scented with essence of roses, used as a perfume or flavouring, or in medicinal preparations, etc. (OED: rose water, n.1.a).

Comment: The term appears both as a single word and two separate words in the manuscript. The citations in the OED show that current usage also varies between one and two word spellings, so the transcripts will maintain the spelling style of the manuscript.

Example: Take Claret Wine, Rosewater, sliced Orenges, Sinamon and ginger, and lay it vpon Sops, and lay your Capon vpon it, A book of cookyre Very necessary for all such as delight therin, A.W (1591) (Source: EEBO).

sack | saik | saike

Occurrence: Contents, R.6, R.13, R.16, R.19, R.21, R.26, R.39, R.43, R.46, R.55.

Definition: A general name for a class of white wines formerly imported from Spain and the Canaries (OED: sack, n3.a).

Comment: See the note on Canary sack.

snow | asnow (as snow)

Occurrence: R.22, R.25, R.27, R.34, R.59.

Definition: A dish or confection resembling snow in appearance, especially one made by whipping the white of eggs to a creamy consistency (OED: snow, n1.5.a).

Comment: The term can also be used as a method of direction as to the consistency cream or eggs should be whipped to.

Example: Whip the whites of six eggs to a hard snow, The Englishwoman in India (London: Smith, Elder and Co, 1864), p. 173.

stick of (whole) cinnamon | stick of (hole) sinamond | stick of sinimumn

Occurrence: R.17, R.37, R.38.

Definition: A short length of cinnamon quill, in which form the spice is commonly sold and used (OED: cinnamon, n., cinnamon stick, n.).

Example: How to make Cinamon stickes. To make most Artificiall Cinamon stickes, take an ounce of Cinamon and pound it, and halfe a pound of Sugar; then take some gumme Dragon and put it in steepe in Rosewater, then take thereof to the quantity of a hasell nut, and worke it out and print it, and roule it in forme of a Cinamon sticke, The English house-vvife, Gervase Markham (1631) (Source: EEBO).

strokings | strokeings

Occurrence: R.2, R.40, R.49.

Definition: pl. The last milk drawn from a cow; afterings (OED: stroking, n.2).

Example: strokings from the Cow, The English midwife enlarged, Anon. (1682) (Source: EEBO).

syllabub | silibubbe | sillibub | syllabube | sylly bubbe | syllybubb

Occurrence: R.18, R.20, R.22, R.26.

Definition: A drink or dish made of milk (frequently as drawn from the cow) or cream, curdled by the admixture of wine, cider, or other acid, and often sweetened and flavoured (OED: syllabub, n.1).

Example: To make an excellent Syllabub. Milk the Milk of a young Cow into your Vessel, to 2 Quarts of it put a Pint of White-wine, 2 or 3 spoonfuls of Verjuice, or the Juice of green Grapes, and a spoonful of the Juice of Balm or Mint, scrape into it some Loaf-Sugar, and add a little gra|ted Nutmeg; you may also scent it with a little Rose or Orange-water, England's happiness improved by Anon. (1699) (Source: EEBO).


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Recipe Index

The Contents Page

to maike cloutedTo make clotted cream page 1
to maike a SackTo make a sack posit page 3
to maik allmondTo make almond cream page 4
to maike cheas kakeTo make cheesecake page 7
to maike whiptTo make whipped posit page 8
to preserve quinchesTo preserve quinces page 15
_araway cake Mrs thorntons page 18
to maike mackrounsTo make macaroons page 31
litell curan kakesLittle currant cakes page 34
to maikeTo make paste page 34
surfitSurfit water water page 40
siropSyrup of turnips page 47
surfit water waterSurfit water page 48
the vertues of the SnaileThe virtues of the snail water page 55
burningBurning perfumes page 56
pomatumPomatum page 57
past for thePaste for the hands page 58
wax forhead cloatheWax forehead cloth page 60
gaskinsGaskins powder page 60
forFor an aspnell page 66
Snalle water for colvoltionsSnail water for convulsions 69
an exolent dyetAn excellent diet drink page 72
for Cleaning theFor cleaning the blood page 73
for a spedyFor a speedy deliverance page 74
for the scurveyFor the scurvy page 78
aA glister page 80
for the falling sickneFor the falling sickness page 85
universallUniversal plaster page
for the seategeFor the seatage page 86
forFor wind page 8_
elicksir propritatus and goosberyElixir propritatus and gooseberry wine page 8_
aA safe vomit page 8_
for a loosnerFor a loosener page 90
the dark ayleThe dark ale page 92
forFor a stitch page 54
for an asptnellFor an aspnell page 54
pickledPickled mushroom page 9

The Recipes

1 to make clouted CreamTo make clotted cream

take A quart of thik Almond milk season it with salt sugar rosewa
Take a quart of thick almond milk season it with salt sugar rosewater
let it seeth in A skiller and when it is ready seethed cover it withlet it seeth in a skillet and when it is ready seethed cover it with
wafers then take it ofoff the fire that you may lay them on strowstrew Aa
litellittle sugar on it and its done

2 Another sort

takeTake of your best milkemilk and some strokeingsstrokings amongst it and set it
over the fire and boylboil it and when it is boyledboiled take it from the fire
and stir it a while then put it in your bowls scourescour ofoff the froth
from it and let it stand till next day so you may dish it up

3 to make Almond CreamTo make almond cream

boyleBoil some cream have some almonds finely beaton boylebeaten boil them in
the cream with a blade of masemaize season it with ssugarsugar strain it
serve it up

4 Another of the same

Take a quart and a gill of cream it boyleboil to less thenthan a quart then a qua_
ter of a pound of almonds blanch the beter haplhbetter half of them and beat
them very fine with rosewater then take the whiteswhites of 5 egseggs and
beat them very well and strain the egseggs and almonds together a_
a litellittle salt let it be halph couldhalf cold then put itit in the dish that you
serve it up in blanch the rest of your almonds pricktpricked in your

5 Another of the same

Take a quraterquarter of a pound of gordongarden almonds layd in couldlaid in cold water
till they be blanched then beat them in a stone mortar with a lita little
rosewater strain them with a quart of thick sweet Creamcream season
it with fine sugar then put it into a clean scelitskillet and set it on
the fire styringstirring till it boyles a litel then powreboils a little then pour it out and
set it couldcold

Jane Loraine

6 toTo maikemake the Sacksack Creamcream

BoylBoil your Creamcream and when it is Boyledboiled put in as much Sacksack as will
twin it then coulingcooling and hausinghousing in a fine Lininglining cloth
next day season it with sugar serueserve it Upup

7 To make Berleyberley cream

Take berley being well washed boylboil it in 3 or 4 watterswaters till it hath
left collering, at the last boylingboiling in watterwater let it be covered: that
it may swell as when it is for fromity: then take some cream &
as much of this berley as will thicken it boyleboil it well then have
20 blanched almonds finleyfinely beaten put them season it well with
sugar serueserve it up

8 To make quince Creamecream

Take an Ayleale pintepint of Creamecream boyleboil it with mace and sinomoncinnamon
hauehave the yolkesyolks of 6 Eggseggs beaten. putPut them in the cream; and when
your cream is preteypretty thick; take it off the fire stir in it 2 ounces of
quince slice it and laydlay it in the botombottom of your dish so put forth your
cream you may stick it with sittrencitren or rir

9 To make Almondalmond cream

Take Almondsalmonds blanch them in coulecool water beatebeat them vereyvery fine put
now and then a spounfullspoonful of rose water steepesteep in your rose water +
agrainea grain of musk this being done take the whitswhites of six Eggseggs beat them
till they be vereyvery thin your cream being boyledboiled with onelyonly mace put
in your almonds and, when they are well mingled, put in your Eggs;eggs; they
must not boyleboil but simper so take them off: you must take halfehalf
a pound of almonds you must take of Eggseggs 6 pints whites to an ayleale
pintepint of cream. youYou may stick this with gilded almonds only in
the topestops and soeso sweatensweeten it to your taste

10 Spirit of Carawayscaraways

Take a quart of brandeybrandy wine & halfehalf a pound of Lofe sugarloaf-sugar
beat it; 4 ounces of caraway seeds put them into a glasglass botlebottle set
them so nearenear the fire that the botlebottle may be warmewarm for 14 dayesdays
then strainestrain it through afinea fine cloth; then take as much scuchan
call as will colercolour it deep it must be brused small

11 EggeEgg creamecream

Take a quart of creamecream and boyleboil it up: that hauehave 4 whites of
Eggseggs well beaten: with 3 spounfullsspoonfuls of rose water; when the cream
is boyledboiled take it off the fire: when it is a little coulecool stirrestir
in your Eggs:eggs: so serueserve it up

12 To make raw Spanish cream

Take a quart of cream and rosewater a spownfulspoonful as much Sugarsugar
as will sweatinsweeten it to your taste Serveserve it up

13 To make Cabishcabbage Creamcream

Take thirty quarts of new milkemilk from the kowcow put it into a ke
set it over a ueryvery quick fire with fagitsfaggots and take 3
dowsendozen of earthen pannspans clean washed 2 pound of doubeldouble refined
Suagrsugar beatonbeaten to powdarpowder a litellittle rosewaterrose water or oring flowr
or sack which you think best put it in a viallvial glasglass co
it with leather prick holes in your leather whearewhere the water is to
come into let all these be in ridinessreadiness Taketake the milk off the fire fill
each pane almost full let it stand till you sesee a come ont take a plaiteplate
put in into the pannpan with the botomebottom upwards strowstrew upon the plate botomebottom a
litelllittle sugar then take off the scomescum wonone after another with a great
care you break it not lay it the plaiteplate what formeform you will the
formeform of a cabishcabbage is best between every boylingboiling strowstrew some Sugarsugar sprink
a drop or towtwo of rosewaterrose water if you put towtoo much it will be spoyledspoiled
so cover your ketelkettle when the milk is out after every boylingboiling
when you have taken the scoumfscum off the milk put it into the ketelkettle
again wash your pannspans thus you may dowdo 3 or fourefour times or more
out of the fourefour boylingsboilings you may have 2 good dishes in every boy
you must put in as much Saltsalt as you can holdehold in the topetop of
your finger the milk that is left will serve for ordinary uses if
thearethere be any froth in the milk before it boylboil scomescum it off with a
spownspoon as sounesoon as you have taken up the milk to poutput into the pa
have another emtyempty pan blow ofoff the milk into it in dowingdoing so
the scoumscum will setelsettle holewhole without breaking as the milk begins to boylboil
you must take it off the fire the pannspans must be filedfilled one after a
quickly so serueserve it up

14 anotherAnother Cabbishcabbish Creamcream

Take new milk from the cow five galons sensend it over the fierfire when
is scalding hot take it ofoff the fierfire and put it into many siueralseveral
pans of ton quarts aof Greecegrease and when the milk is koldcold take ofoff the
cream with a seimer with holes but before take a round manshet
well chipedshaped lay in the bottom of your fistefist and lay the cream upon the
lofeloaf then take another lofeloaf clean from the milk and so another
and lay them one upon and the take a litellittle rosewater with a featherfeat

and wash over the cream and straw on a litellittle fine sugar and
so seime clean from the milk the cream and lay it one upon another
but be sure you wash it lightly every fourefour or five rows and
siffsieve on sugar and when you have seimed all the pans scald all
your milk over again and put it out into your pans and when is
is thikthick a nufenough and cold then take it ofoff as you did before and lay
one upon another and use a litellittle rosewater and lay it in rowersrows
like cabish the scaldscold the milk againeagain adingadding some cream to make the
leaueslayers thicker and dowdo as before the milk will sarve but three times
then have more new and dowdo as much as you will maikemake your cabbish
as big as you pleasplease when you have you have laidelay all you cream
like a cabish stick in a fine branch of sweet bryer remember
to pytput out the milk hot enoghenough that it may churn more

15 To make ringo route cream

Take halfehalf apounda pound of ringo routes and minch them very small
then take an ayle pint of cream and put them in over the
fierfire and boyleboil it with a peacepiece of isinglasse to thicken it
boyleboil a little of it and if it be stiffestiff enough stirrestirred in
a little oringe flowre water and so put it furthforth and put
it where it must not bybe styredstirred till next day if you may stick
in them spistakes and gyldgold the top of them

16 To make Biskakebiscuit creams

Take arowlea roll of napels biskake cutecut it in thinefine small peacespieces and
take an ayle pint of cream boyleboil in your cream aferafter carraway
way seades

tyetie in apeacea piece of tyffany and a little mace then take
in eggs the yolks only being well beatonbeaten and thickonthicken your creams and
styrrstir in 2 spounfullesspoonfuls of saike and 3 of rose water and when
you take it from the fyrefire puttput in your biskakebiscuit so puteput it fourthforth
and let it stand where it may not be styrrdstirred till next day
sweatensweeten it to your likeingliking

17 To make a thick cream

Take sweatsweet cream and a little of flowreflour finely seansedsieved, a holewhole
stick of sinimumncinnamon sugar and rose water let all those boyleboil
till they be somthingsomething thick then put into it the yolkesyolks of Eggegg
and beatebeat them well with a little the same milkemilk then let
it seathseethe a little while for fear of churdlingcurdling then putting it in
dishes letting it stand till it be cold and so serve it uppeup

18 To make a sylly bubbe

Take allmostalmost a pint of good white wine put it into a pottpot ntk
somsome sugar and a notmugenutmeg quarter it some roasmaryrosemary and lemon
pill priikedpricked full of holes wthwith a knife lettlet it stand four hours
then take a quart of cream and a quart of milkemilk, milkemilk it to
the wine with a wooden konecone prittepretty warm and let it stand
eight houreshours but before you put in the milkemilk take out the nutmeg
and roasemaryrosemary and lemmonlemonpill

19 To make a sack posset

Take a quart of cream 12 yolks and whites of Eggeseggs beating
the Eggseggs a Longlong time put to them as much saik as milk
make it strongestrong as micxmuch sugar as will sweatonsweeten them
to you Aafterafter stirrstir them very well togeathertogether, strainestrain them
in a basingbasin wilewhile hotthot coalescools continually stirring them
when they begin to be something hotthot, get your creamecream on
the fierfire lettlet you saik and Eggseggs be so hot you cannot
endurdendure your finger in it when the cream ryseth poorpour
it into the Eggseggs stirring them while the creamecream is
pooringpouring, poorepour it hyehigh to make it froathfroth clappclap aplatea plate
over them and lettlet them stand over the coals a whileawhile

20 To make sillibubsyllabub the best way

Take a pint of white wine and a pint of mornings cream and a quart
of a pound of sugar put them in a basingbasin and stir them well together
till it come to a froathfroth then pourepour it into a sillibubsyllabub pot and milk
suficientsufficient quantity of milk upon it and let it stand in a coulecool roomeroom a
night or more sowersour it and it will be beterbetter then you may eat it

21 toTo maikemake another sack positposset

Take three pints of sweet cream 12 eggs beat six whitswhites ueryvery well
put the cream and egseggs into a basingbasin you will send it up in and put in
a pint and a halphhalf of sack and halphhalf a pound of sugar stir them well
together and set the basonbasin on a pot of boylingboilingwater and turn the basonbasin
round about often least it hardonharden more on the one side than the other when
the drink is clear and the churd all alike it is a noughenough then strowstrew it
with sinamoncinnamon and sugar and serueserve it up it will be an hour
halphhalf a doeingdoing

22 To maikmake snow silibubbesyllabub

Take a pint of renishRhenish wine or good whitwhite wine and a quart of sweet cream
and put them into a broad earthen pot and season it with sugar and
put a in and pairepare a lemmonlemon and put in both lemmonlemon and
pill then mingelmingle all together then take a biutenbirchen rodderod pealedpeeled and
beat it ueryvery well and as the froathfroth risethrises take it with a
slice of siluersilver ladle with holes and puttput it upon
your syllybubesyllabub that's all

23 To make a good posset

Take halfehalf white wine and halfehalf water sweatensweeten it
with sugar and poorepour cream on it to make a posset thus in short

24 To make oringorange creamecream

Slice oringosoranges into cream let it boyleboil till the oringoesoranges be allmostalmost
wasted puttput in the yolkesyolks of fouerfour eggs to make it like a
foulefool and when it is cold serueserve it uppup

25 To make snow

Take apintea pint of thick creamecream boyleboil it then take rose water
and sugar and season it fit for your taste then tyetie a little
muskingmuslin cloathcloth and puttput it in that seauenseven or eight whites of
eggs and beat them towto as hyehigh asnowas snow as you can then take
the creamecream boylingboiling of the fire and puttput them in stirring
them softly that puttput into a dish for your use

26 To make a syllabubbsyllabub of old creamecream

Take a pound of rennishrhenish wine or white wine and cuttcut a lemmonlemon
as you doedo for whaywhey to puttput into it and cuttcut a nutmeggenutmeg into 4
quarters and a spriggesprig of roasemaryrosemary and puttput likewise into it then
take three pintespints of creamecream and puttput thereunto and with a rod
beatebeat it well togeathertogether and as the cordcurd arisethrises take it
ofoff and put it into another dish, when you sesee the drink
lookelook greangreen and that you thinkethink you hauehave beatebeat it enough
then poorepour the drink into the pottpot you entendintend to serueserve it uppup
in and puttput the curd and the topptop and you must sweatensweeten
the wine with sugar to your own taste you may puttput in a
little saiksack if you please, it may be kept a day or towtwo

27 To make snow creamecream

Take thikthick creamecream of the eaueningevening milkemilk puttput to it
a little sugar and some roaserose water, then puttput it into siluersilver
basingbasin or a wooden bowlebowl and with a little roddrod make a
little brishbrush and beatebeat it with good strength and as you see
it riseingrising to froth puttput it with the roddrod into the other side
of the bowlebowl from the plate where you beatebeat it and when
you hauehave a good dealedeal made into froth take it up with ask
a skimmer
and as fast as you lay it into your cream bowlesbowls throw
scearsedsearced double refined sugar upon it, and when you hauehave taken
uppup as much froathefroth as you hauehave that made, that fall to beats
in your creamecream again so doedo till you hauehave made your dish
of creamecream as big as you will hauehave it that is dondone

28 To make almond creamecream

Take almonds beaten small and streanedstrained out with creamecream
boyleboil them in the creamecream with roaserose water and sugar till that
be as thick as pappepap so serueserve it in your dish you must be carefullcareful
in this boylingboiling that it turn not and obserueobserve to stir your creamecream all
one way and stirrstir it a little ofoff the fyrefire

29 To maikemake Spanish Creamcream

Take three gallons of milkemilk a quart of cream set it on a clear fierfire
it that it may be hot a nufenough without boylingboiling then put it into three earthen pans
let it stand 24 hours then take the cream ofoff the pannespans and put it into a
dish beat it with the backeback of a spownspoon till it be thikethick season it with ro
water and Sugarsugar to your taste then dish it up take cream ofoff the
pannespans lay ouerover it all

30 To maikemake papepap

Take three quart of new milk set it on the fierfire in a deep Siluersilver dish
when it begins to boyleboil scumeskim it then put theartothereto a handful of fine
flower and yolks of three egseggs which you must hauehave well mingled to
with aladela ladle with coldecold milkemilk before you put it in the milk that
boylesboils as it boylesboils keep it stiringstirring till it be boyldboiled a nufenough in the boylingboiling
season it with salt some fine beaten Sugarsugar stir it till its boyldboiled as
thikthick as you desire then put it into a dish and serue it up

31 To maikemake goosberygooseberry Creamcream

Take cream and boylboil it well put in the yolks of 2 eggs one white and
some Sugarsugar boylboil it a good while then rub them through a culindercolander into
the cream let it boylboil a while you must in as many as will maikemake
it thikethick serueserve it up coldecold

32 To maikemake Goosberygooseberry Creamcream

Take goosberysgooseberries and scald them and strainestrain a good many of them
into some cream that it may be thikthick season it with rosewater and Sugarsugar
Soso serueserve them

33 To maikemake rasberyraspberry Creamcream

Take rasberrysraspberries boylboil them in rosewater and Sugarsugar to take away the
rawnesrawness then strainestrain them with thikthick cream and Seasonseason it with more Sugarsugar
to your tasttaste and Serueserve it up

34 Another of thethe same

Take rasberrys and beat them will in a dish with a spownspoon putingputting in a li
rosewater and sugar when it is well beaten Setset it ouerover the fierfire
with a litellittle musk amber greasambergris as it is thurilythoroughly warmed take it ofoff and when
it is cold lay it in a dish then lay your snow upon it haueinghaving first
put the whitwhite of an egg in the cream and betbeat them together it is to be
remembered that you sauesave some of the prepared raspsraspberries to droppedrop upon
and dow the cream sereueserve it up

35 To maikemake raspraspberry and mulberymulberry Creamcream

Take thikthick sweet cream and boylboil it with litellittle masemace and the jusejuice of almonds
which hath been beatonbeaten with rose water or whitswhites of eggs the almonds
being beatonbeaten let it boylboil till you think it be enough then strainestrain in
the raspsraspberries and beat it with a wodenwooden plater till it be cold to dish

36 To maikemake SpannishSpanish papppap

Take three spownfulsspoonfulls of riserice flowrflour finedrefined beatonbeaten and searced towtwo yolks
of eggs threthree spownfulsspoonfulls of Sugarsugar towtwo or three of rose water temper
all these to gethertogether then put them into a pint of cold cream then set
it upon the fierfire and keapkeep it stiredstirred till it grow of a reasonabelreasonable thiknessthickness
then put it into a dish Serueserve it up

37 To maikemake allmondalmond milk

Take frenshFrench barlybarley let it be clear washed steapsteep it in warm water
till the ridnesreddness be gone then taktake raisings of the sun strawberry leauesleaves
and uiletviolet leauesleaves endiueendive and succerysuccory fenallfennel roots and parsolyparsley the
pith taken out of these all this boyledboiled together with a chickenchicken if
you will you may giuegive the barley water with a letellittle Sugarsugar to one
that hath the burning feauourfever or maikemake thearthere allmondalmond milk of this
broth the sicker being koldcold stamp your allmondsalmonds with a litellittle rose
water a stick of holewhole s sinamondcinnamon some holewhole masemace maikemake it
sweetSwet to your taste and when it is strained warm it with the
spicesspises in a silverSilver dish soSo keepkeap it

38 To makemaike of another sortSort

Take a quart of fare water setSet it on the firefier put then inthein halfhalph a handful
of violet leavesleaues if the time serveSerue the flowers also one handful of
raisinsraisings of the sun stoned 2 or three blades of macemase the bottombotom of a manchetmanchit
a stick of cinnamonsinamond broken and a rase of ginger but if it be set on
before it is hot leaveleaue out the hot things and put in more cold things
herbshearbs and when they havehaue boiledboyld an hourhoure blancheblance a quarter of a
pound of almonds and beat them in a mortarmorter and as you beat them
put in a spoonfulspounful of the liquorlicker and when they are very small strain
them into a dish with the liquorlicker and if it not be thickthik enough beat you
almonds again and strain them then pourpowr it forthfourth and put in a spoonfulspounful
of rosewater then set it on the firefier again and let it boilboyel but stir it and
sweetsweat it with sugar

39 To makemaike whitewhit creamCream

Take 7 ounces in spoonfulsspounfuls of cream halfhalph as much sack as much sugarSugar
and with a birchbrich rod whip it ours then you may take it offof and
put it into your dish you would serveSerue it up in it will be so stiff
as to hold water in it

40 To makemaik maik fresh cheeseCheas

Take some strokingsstrokeings and set them together as you dodow for another
cheeseCheas and it is ready put the wheyway from it and break it very
well with a woodenwoden spoonspoun and cut a nutmegnutmug into fourfoure quartersquaters
and put into it then put in some sugarSugar and workwoke it together then
take out the nutmegnutmug and soSo dish it up and cream

41 To makemaike creamCream to eat with fresh cheeseCheas

Take scalding of roastedrosted apples and take of the pap of them and put it into
a dish and braisebrase well with a spoonspoun then spread it thin on the bottombotom
of the dish you mean to put your fresh cheesecheas in and uponuppon the rindsrides as for
as you mean the cream shall come you must thickthik cream in a
skilletScylet setSet it on the firefier and put in twotow or three blades of macemase and in a while
it boilboyl veryuery fast and when it boilsboyles up put in as much rosewater
and sugar as will pleasepleas your taste let it still boilboyl apaceapase and when you
seese it is thickthik and frothsfroathes then with a spoonspoun take up the bubblesbubels as fast
as they rise put them into your dish you spread with applesappels until you
havehaue filledfiled it and the cream is cold then put in your fresh cheesecheas
and soSo serveServe it up

42 To makemaike creamCream

Take twotow quarts of sweet cream set it on the firefier in a clean skilletscyllet
and when it boilsboyls put in as much Canary sackSack as will turn like
a possetposet put it into a bowlbowll or strainer till all the wheyway be run from it
then rub the curdcrud throughthrow the strainer into a dish and seasonSeason it with rosewater
and sugarSugar and if it be thickerthiker thanthen you would havehaue it put some
of the wheyway in it soSo serveSerue it in cream

43 To makemaik lemonLemon creamCream

Take a quart of cream boilboyl it with a sprigsprigh of rosemaryrosmary and
a littlelital thin lemon pill macemase and nutmegs then strain it throughthrow
a strainer when it is cold taketak the juicejus of a lemon and a spoonfulspounful
of sack turn it that you may seeSe it turned then put it into
a strainerstraner and by it hang it up as it drops by the strainerstraner a
littlelitel lower let it hang all night then take a pint of halfhalph cream
boilboyl it with macemase lemon skin and sugarSuagr and the whiteswhits of
2 new laid eggsegs let them boilboyl up and strain it into a
dish keep it strainingstriing till it be cold put theretothearto a littlelitel
rosewater take your curd out of the strainer makemaike them
into 3530 5 ballsballes about the bignessbignes of applesapeles put the cream into them

44 To makemaike codlingkodling creamCream

Take after your codlingsCodlings is scalded and pealed put them into a silverSilver
dish till the dish is almost halfhalph full with damask roses halfhalph a pound
of sugar boilboyl all these togethertother still stirringstiring of the codlings till the liquorliker
is almostallmost consumed then fill up the dish with sweetswet cream when it hath
when it hath boiledboyld a littlelitell all overouer the dish strewstrow sugar upon it eat
it coldcolde

45 To makemaike egg creamCream like butterbuter

Take a quart of cream boilboyl it with macemase put in sixSiix yolks of eggsegs
well beatenbeaton and boilboyl it till it turn a littlelitel with saltSalt if it dodow not turn
you may put in someSome juicejuse of lemonleamon let it not turn to be hard
put it into a cloth let it hang up all night next day take it out
of the cloth pick out all the macemase seasonSeason it with rosewater and sugar
serveSerue it in your bowlbowll and pink it as you dodow almond butterbuter

46 To makemaike sackSack creamCream

Take a quart of creamCream boilboyl it with macemase put in sixSix yolks of eggsegs
well beatenbeaton let it boilboyl up take it offof the firefier put in a littlelitel sackSack
to turn it then put it in a cloth let the wheyway draindraine from it then
then take it out of the cloth season it with rosewater and sugarSugar
being well broken with a spoonspown serveSerue it in a dish and pink

4747 To makemaike barleyberly creamCream for one that is sickSicke and not hot

Take a pottlepotel of fare runningruning water put it into a skillet then take the
roots of parsleyparsely and fennellfenell the pith being taken out of them a quarter
of a handful then take the roots of succorysuckery endiveindive and borage buglossburig bugeles of
these a quarter of a handful the pith being taken out a handful
of violetuiolet leavesleaues a handful of raisinsrasons of the sun stoned and twotow spoonfuls
of Frenchfrensh barley then boilboyl all these together for an houroure an
halfhalph then take a quarter of a pound of almonds blanch them
and beat them small and as you beat them take a spoonfulspownful of
the liquorliker into them then strain them with the liquorliker and put
it into a glass and drink it when you are dry

48 Toto makemaike curd loafCurdeLofe

Take the curd of three quarts of new milkmilke clean wheyedwaged rub it
into a littlelitell fine flourflower then take a rase of ginger sliceSlise it
put to the curd and a littlelitel saltSalt then take a pint of yeast
and to it 10 eggs whiteswhits let theretheyr be as much flourflower as will
makemaike it into a paste and put it into a hot clothcloath lay it before
the firefier to riseryes while your ovenouen is a heating makemaike it up into
loafloafe when it is baked cut it on the top put in some melted
butterbuter and sugarSugar

49 To makemaike cheesecakesCheaskes

Take a pottlepotel ofo strokingsstrokeings and a quart of creamcreame mix them together and put a
littlelitol earning to it and when the curd is come put it into a clothcloath and strain
out the wheyway and rub the curd with a littlelitel fresh butterbuter till it be tender then
season it with t rosewater and sugarSugar nutmegsnuttmegs and currants mix your paste
and curdscurst with a littlelitel creamcreame as you dodow for sugarSugar cakeskakes let your ovenouen
be hot and quick setSet not up the stone at all while they'rethyer bakingbakeing lay a
littlelitel butterbuter upon everyeuery one of them while they be in the ovenouen

50 AnotherA nother sortSort of cheesecakesChease kakes

Take three eggs and beat them veryuery well and as they are beating put to
them as much flourflower as will makemaike them thickthik then put to it four eggs more
beat them all veryuery well together then take a quart of cream put in a quarter
of a pound of butterbuter setSet it on the firefier when it begins to boilboyle put in the
eggsegs and flourflower let them boilboyl till they be thickthike then season it with currantscurans
saltSalt a sugar bake them in coffinscofens like cheesecakescheaskakes with cinnamonsinamon

51 AnotherA nother sortSort of cheesecakesCheaskakes

Take a gallon of new milk and setSet it it with rennetrunet so that it may come
quickly tender then put in a cheesecheas clothcloath draindraine the wheyway clean from it take
it and put it into a bowlbowle then take the third part of a pound of butterbuter it
in thoroughlythrowly with your hands then take six yolks of eggs beat it with a
spoonfulspownf of rose water as much sugarSugar as will sweetensweaten it when you havehaue
well put in halphhalf a pound of curranscurrants mingedmix it together halphhalf
nutmeg then put them into cofins maike your paste very good and st
put in sugar your oven must be as hot as for a mainshetmanchet

Katherine52 Hartshorne creamecream

Take six ounces of Hartshorne one ounce of ireinglasisinglas and a quart of water purpure
put them in a stone botelbottle close stoptfirmly closed and boylboil them in a pan of water to a gillyjelly
then put it in a pan with the whites of three eggs well beatbeaten boylboil it so strain it
and take as much creamecream as you have jelyjelly when the gillyjelly is cold put in
the cream and put to it eight ounces of blanched almons beat with whisk rosewater
put that to the cream with a litellittle sugar and musk set it on the fierfire to scald then st

it and put it into narrow botomedbottomed glasesglasses buteredbuttered in eveyevery glasglass alike quant

turn them out on a plate and stikstick it with fine apelapple seeds the heads cut ofoff and
put in water tilluntil they flower, for want of them almonsalmonds

53 SpynageSpinach cream

Take cream and boylboil it very thick season it with sugar and salt when
cold maikemake it green with jucejuice of spinagespinach

54 Hodge hoggeHedgehog cream

Take a quart of cream set it to boylboil then put it in the
yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of three well beaten eggs a little
sak, set it on the fyrefire tilluntil it thickenthickens and turndturned then put
it in a thin cloathcloth steamesteam it tilluntil the whaywhey be all out sweeten
it with sugar and a little rose water lay it in a dish in the
formeform of a hedghedge hoggehog stick it very thick of blanchblanched almonalmonds
cut as small as put two curranscurrants in the eyes when it goes
to the table put on raw cream

55 Lady Herons whip posset

Take thick cream and put to it sack or white wine
it taste preteypretty stronge but not to turneturn put in a sprig of
rosemary and rose water to your taste make it preteypretty sweet
with sugar put in some jucejuice of lemon take a birthbirch rod pealedpeeled
And whipewhip it as the froth riseth then put it in your posset cups

56 Almond butter

Take a pound of almonsalmonds put them in faireclean water leltlet
them stand tilluntil they blanchblanche then blanchblanche them into rosewater
take a few at a time beatebeat them in a stone mortar or
a wooden Boulebowl tilluntil they be very small putingputting in
sometimes a little roase waterrose water take a cleaneclean
cloathcloth and steamesteam them put them in againeagain with some
more beatebeat them with rosewater as before straine them
againeagain doedo so tilluntil all the goodness be got out then take it
put it in a Butterbutter dish with a little large mace sinamoncinnamon
and a little sugar

57 Almond butter

Take halfehalf a pound of Butterbutter a handfullhandful of almonds
blanched and finely beaten putingputting in as much rosewater
as will keepekeep them from oylingoiling when they are betboth mixmixed
the almonds and butter together sweeten them with sugar
rub them throwthrough a haire siuesieve so serueserve it

58 Almond Butterbutter

Take a pound of Almonds beatebeat them very fine in faireclean water
wheareinwherein in good store of coriander seeds hathhas been boyledboiled
when it is very fine strain it into the cream beatebeat it set it
on the fire stir it when it begins to boyleboil put in the jucejuice of
a lemon a little salt when it begins to turn take it ofoffwhen
spread it upon a holand apron wet it well with rosewater
then work it upon a board let it be held very straight with
your ladle scrape it into the midlemiddle of your cloathcloth tyetie it vpup let
it drainedrain tilluntil next day turneturn it out sweatensweeten it with rosewater
and sugar soeso serve it vpup

59 A Anatus

Take 3 potlesbottles of mornsmorning milk set it on the fire with a potlebottle
of sweatsweet creamecream when it hathhas boyledboiled a great while put
into the 8 stone pans when it is cold set it on the fire againeagain
tilluntil it be hot but not boyldboiling take heed you neuernever break the
cream with takeingtaking it ofoff the fire and on the fyrefire which
you must doedo very gently let noeno bublesbubbles be in the topptop but
take them ofoff with a spounespoon before the creame be gathered
so sounsoon as you pour it out of the beags pan after the second
takeingtaking it ofoff the fyrefire let it stand six hours then take
it ofoff loosingloosening it from the pans with your hands
Take the natus of the milkemilk betwixtbetween every one strowstrew
sugar so lay natus upon natus with your sugar till your dish
be full as you strowstrew sugar sprinkle rose water upon it when
you serve it set a branch of rosemary in the dish cast snow
upon bote ye rosmaryboth the rosemary and the natus

60 An Abist

Take 30 ayle pints of new milkemilk set it on the fire in a
kettle till it be scalding hot stirring it oft to keepekeep it from
creaming put it forth into an earthen pan as you put
it forth take out the blabers with aspounea spoon let it stand
till it be couldcold take ofoff the cream with towtwo such slices as
you beat biskityou beat biscuit with they must be very thin not to brood
when you have taken of the creameoff the cream lay it on any plaiteplate
set on four or five times lay A stalkea stalk on the midst of
the plaiteplate lay the rest upon the top between every laine
scrapegingerscrape ginger strowstrew rosewater if you will the pouderpowder of
musk and amber greaseambergris be carfullcareful of the heating
you smoakesmoke it not

61 leamon CreamLemon cream

Take foruvefour or five lemmons paire oflemons pare off the thin rinde squesrind squeeze the jusjuice of those lemons upon the
pill let them stand an ourhour then take a pyntpint of water the whitswhites of eight egseggs
and towtwo yolks of of well betbeaten then beat all these together season it with
sugar to your taste put it all through a fine thikenthicken it on the fierfire but not
boylboil it so you may maik oringmake orange cream only taike abouat towtake about two or four whites
and the rest yolks to maike it neare the culler of the oringsmake it near the colour of the oranges to your discretion

62 anotherAnother lemon Creamcream

takeTake the jusejuice of four lemons pairepare ofoff the thin rind steep it in the jusejuice beat
eight whitswhites of eggs and a half and a yolk very well beat strainestrain the jusjuice into
them and put in a pyntpint of spring water and a spwonfillspoonful of roase waterrose water
sweeetsweet it with dubledouble refined sugar and set it on a slo fierslow fire and stir
it still till it jelyjelly it must not boylboil let it drop throwthrough a fine cloathcloth

63 Jockalet CreamChocolate cream

to a pyntTo a pint of cream put a heapt spownfull of iockaletheaped spoonful of chocolate set it over
a slo fierslow fire stir it very well put in a litelllittle sugar take it ofoff the
fierfire but stir it still beat a whitwhite of an egg very well but not to
froathfroth when your cream is allmostalmost cold put it to your egg a spon
at a time till it come to a dosendozen stirring it all the
while then put it in all your cream hold it at a distance over the
fierfire stirring it from the botombottom till it be quite cold it must be
all a like thikalike thick